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Jan 13 Lecture Notes.docx

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Janice Boddy

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ANT200 Lecture Notes Monday January 13 2014 Agriculture in the Middle East - Different ways that agriculture developed – different areas – developed independently - Agriculture does also spread - The spread of agriculture is not simple, is dynamic, involves relationships – farmers, hunter-gatherers – etc. - Middle East – most developed archaeological record – lets us look at the history and development of agriculture - Middle East – wheat, goat, pig, cow, barley, lentil - Fertile Crescent - relatively small area of the world but large enough that we cannot assume that the same things were going on at one point as in another – politics plays role - Politics stops cross-over of research (and digs) between certain regions - Find the table showing the stages (around page 198) Geometric Kebaran - Ohalo o Tools are geometric o Hunter-gatherers – gazelle o Some evidence for shelters – brush huts o Return to huts – don’t know how long – not permanent o Burial set between huts at Ohalo – stone installation near – before domestication – maybe start marking space, symbolically - Kharaneh – Jordan o Huts – bigger structures o Larger congregations of people o Bones under floor of house – other bones near/ in ground - fox etc - Wadi Mataha o No structures o Hunter-gatherer o Rock shelter (sorta) – people come and go o Stone bowl with hole ANT200 Lecture Notes Monday January 13 2014 o Man with hole in head and hand tied behind back – significance? – important or was a bad person – manipulation of bodies (human and animal) Natufian – 15,000-12,000 BP Technology - Chipped stone o Lunates – crescent shaped microliths – some with sickle polish - Ground stone o Grinding stones o Bedrock mortars o Decorated bowls - Not domesticating anything – but are using plants differently - Beads – shells from Med. - Sickle with two rows of blades (Natufian) – some pattern – meander - No storage areas Domestication - Hunting o Focus on gazelle (which are never domesticated) o Desert Kites – walls used for killing large numbers of gazelle - Broad spectrum adaptation o Birds and fish o Plant foods – grinding stones and sickles –Abu Hureira, Syria - No evidence of morphological change - Did not domesticate any animals - Not a lot of botanical evidence – flotation – needs to be charred – why are these missing? – not using, discarding elsewhere etc. Sedentism - Small settlements with circular architecture o Abu Hureyra, Syria o Einan (Mallaha), Israel ANT200 Lecture Notes Monday January 13 2014 - Year round occupation? o Evidence from Commensuals – Hayonim - Natufian village – not all year round, relatively small, would be able to see beyond the site from the middle, village about size of classroom, can see nature from inside - Transformation of the way space is used happens before the shift to domestication - Pits dug into the ground (often on hill) – floor blends in - Some pits in the house – why are there holes in the floors? – spent tools, fire, etc - Mallaha – holes in the ground – to hold up podiums which can hold a thatched roof - But what actually happens at these sites? - Numerous burial inside and outside houses o Dogs buried with humans at Einan and Haynoium o Fetal position burial o No morphological evidence for domestication of dogs – were wild dogs – suggests that there is a shift in the relationship between humans and animals – no physical evidence of domestication but the relationship may have changed o Body weighed down by stones o Rare to get a body face up – but guy with stones weighing him down, bones under his head – other bodies around o Games played with heads – removal of, heads in deposits, etc. o All of the burials are associated with housing o Other items played with and carefully placed – stones, cobbles, bones, etc. Climate - Younger Dryas – 11,000-10,000 BP o Dry climate conditions – like mini ice age - Change happens – or something pushes society - Change of climate – push forward for agriculture - Collapse in number and size of sites at the end of Natufian – might have to do with the climate (roughly correlates with the Younger Dryas) – maybe other factors - The end of the Natufian correlates with the Younger Dryas Pre-Pottery NeolithicA(PPNA) – 12,000-10,800 BP ANT200 Lec
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