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Jan 27 Lecture Notes

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Janice Boddy

ANT200 Lecture Notes Monday, January 27, 2014 - Test is 50 min – no tutorials next week – second half of class is lecture Hilazon - Galilee – Natufian - small cave – small structures about 1 m wide – not houses – burials within two structures – older women in crouched fetal position – unusual accompanying objects – tail of wild cow, part of basalt bowl, two skulls of rodents, wing bone of eagle, forearm of wild boar – complete articulated foot of person, leg up – lots of tortoise shells – how do we interpret this? – excavators thought she was a shaman buried with her toolkit and things that represented her – especially the tortoise – women being honored by these objects, or sacrificed – is she part of the assemblage or the point of it - Natufian – playing games with bodies - stone architecture - Transformation of human societies and the human relationship to plant and animal world - Comparative approach – independent domestication case studies – variation - Middle Eastern case is an example of basic development - Relation of humans to space – precedes architecture Gobekli Tepe - PPNB – circular houses – passageways and inner areas – large pillars – starts to look like Stonehenge – what does it mean – temple? – place people went to for ritual behaviours – rituals taken out of the house and brought into public – this place may have been domestic too – lots of deposits that could be from feasting or everyday life – what is the nature of domestic space? - Pre-pottery Neolithic b – domestication of plants and animals – intensification of size of sites – larger scale of symbolic behaviour – investing space – labour and meaning – plaster skulls – plaster used in houses Highland Valley - Tehuacan Valley: Richard MacNeish - Oaxaca Valley: Guila Naquitz – Kent Flannery - Domestication may have taken place with hunter-gatherers – some domestication - AMS – measures C14 – smaller samples – allows maize to be dated directly Cerro Juanaquena – 3090 years ago - Slow spread of agriculture – getting maize agriculture - Large scale construction – terrace of hill – village? - Out of purely hunter-gatherers - Late archaic – hunting points 3090 years ago ANT200 Lecture Notes Monday, January 27, 2014 Indigenous Domestication: eastern late archaic – 5,000-3,200 years ago - Domestication of squash, etc. - Poverty Point – monumental construction – raised platforms – horseshoe shaped – massive amounts of materials from hundreds of miles around – not a domestic village (but top of hill was scraped by agriculture where there might have been housing) - Descendants of remains have control over the skeletons Early and middle woodland adena and Hopewell – 3,200-1,700 years ago - Large earthworks – newark earthworks - Vacant centre pattern - Evidence of settled villages or as most evidence suggests, in a settlement culture with highly dispersed households - Great serpent mound, ohio - Core of territory of people who lived in the area (earthworks) - Maize agriculture brought from south – context that lacks large villages but with monuments - Newark earth works – centre of territory – the people affiliated with it o Agency theory – role of the individual as role of society – structure and agency – not centre of territory – these places were spread across the map and people would go to them at different periods of time – your experience as a person of the time would be to travel between the places and meet people – each person has a different connection to each earthwork – the centre is therefore not the earthwork but the person because these places play roles in their lives – what would it be like to see this place and experience it during its time Late woodland period – 1,700 years ago - Uptake of maize agriculture – impact - Maize comes from the south into Ontario around 1,000 ad - Series of site around Toronto and Hamilton o Maize is the only c4 plant that is grown in Ontario – only c3 are indigenous o Bone – dated withAMS – able to look at diet o Huge uptake in maize – central to diet of people in Ontario 1,200-1,300 ad. Models for the adoption of maize - Role of people in the domestication of plants and animals ANT200 Lecture Notes Monday, January 27, 2014 - Bruce smith – focus of local indigenous crops – not an intentional domestication of plants – domestication slowly, naturally happened – unconscious selecting – people picked the things they wanted more and domestication just occurred as a result – no plan – unintentional – domesticated themselves – practically o Coevolution o Passive - Guy prentice – gourds and squashes – bowls and rattles – domestication not for food but for shamans – magical practices – male shamans – experimented with nature – active men carrying out the process of domestication o Shamans o Male = active - Watson and Kennedy – feminist archaeology – just active men? – ge
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