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Lecture 5

lecture 5 - ant 200

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University of Toronto St. George
Christopher Watts

ANT200LECTURE 5what is a complex societyTypically associated with chiefdoms and statesas opposed to bands and tribesCHIEFDOMSlarger than bands and tribes 500020000 peopleKin based ranking under hereditary leadereconomy based on tributeredistributionSettlement centressecular and sacredArchaelogical Example NW Coast MisissipianSTATES PreIndustrialLarger than chiefdoms generally 20000 peopleClassbased hierarchy under kingemperor not chief basedLaws bureacracy taxationi standing armiesCitiespalaces temples public buildingsArchaelogical Example All ancient civilizationseg Mesopotamia 3200 BC and Nile Valley ca 3000BCalso Indus Valley ca 2500BC border of India and PakistanNorth China ca 2000BCMesoamerica ca 1500BCSouth America ca 1500BC WHAT IS COMPLEX SOCIETYFor VGordon Childe 1952 states werecentralized authorities with the power to tax surplus productioin derived from intensive use of the land and increased productivityhis definition of statehood is stinged due to his being a MarxistBut there are other indicatorsa complex of cultural phenomena Flannery 1972 such as1 Writingmost do Inca is the only ancient civilization that did not have writings2 Metallurgymost lower level societies and groups use wooden utensils Only the higher and more complex societies used metal3 Predective Scienceseg Astronomy mathematics4 Large population aggregates urbanization5 Social stratification classesclass based society where you can have a king queen and can also have occupational specialization 6 Occupational specialization eg Fulltime religious specialists7 Monumental public architecture and worksINDICATORSWRITINGSymbolspresent since Upper Paleolithic timesmost early writing involves combinations of
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