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Chapter 7

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Michael Chazan

Chapter 7 Towers Villages and Longhouses 71 Setting the SceneFertile Crescentribbon of Mediterranean climate that arcs across the Middle Eastdry summers and winter rains with enough precipitation to support many types of vegetation Shift to agriculture was a process rather than a revolution there were a number of stages 1 During Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran periods huntergatherers living in the region subsisted on a wide range of plantanimal resources Theres no evidence of domesticated plants and animals then and brush hut remains are the only evidence of architecture 2 During the Natufian period constructed architecture and increased elaboration of material culture appeared Theres no evidence that agriculture had yet to become widespread 3 In the Early Neolithic period people lived in villages and began to farm a range of cereals and pulses Subsequently they also began to domesticate goats4 During the Late Neolithic period the earliest pottery manufacture appeared In most areas the sites of this period are smaller and less densely packed than at the end of the Early Neolithic Sheep goats cattle and pigs were fully domesticatedSTAGE PERIOD DATE YEARS AGO 1 Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran 2500015000 2 Natufian 1500012000 3 Early Neolithic 120008500 4 Late Neolithic 8500700072 Stage 1 Kebaran and Geometric KebaranMost Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran sites are small huntergatherer encampments with few remains other than stone tools and animal bonesOhaloin Northern Israel Kebaran site with preserved remains of brush hutsTechnologyKebaran and Geo Kebaran sites easily identified from stone tools made mostly on small blades known as bladeletsin geo Bladelets were often shaped into geometric forms ex triangles SettlementsMost of these sites show remains of small camps left by highly mobile huntergatherers who didnt live in one location yearroundOhaloafter abandonment it was submerged under water preserving organic remainsdrought brought it up found brush hutsartifacts many stone tools dominated by retouched bladelets also bone tools and shell beads as well as an adult male buried there no burial items Puzzling Geo Kebaran burial excavated at site of Wadi Matahayoung male buried face down with arms and legs tied behind back along with a flint blade and skull was broken open
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