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History of Archaeology

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Michael Chazan

Monday September 27, 2010 Prof. Chazan ANT 200 Introduction to Archaeology History of Archaeology Herxheim, Germany - 5,300 - 4950 BC - Linear Pottery Culture - Early Neolithic - Was this a period characterized by violent conflict? (Cannibalism?) - About the size of football field - Surrounded by ditches - Common feature - Often defensive (can slow enemies down - Not continuous - ‘seudo ditch’ - Human remains in ditches - 500 in half ditches :. About 100 people - Have been de-fleshed, butchered in same techniques like animals - Maximize nutritional yield Diderot and D’alambert - Mid 1700’s - The Encyclopedia - Totality of knowledge Archaeology as Reverence - Nabonidus King of Babylon in 556 BC - Excavated old temple - Thutmose IV 1400 BC - Uncovered the Sphinx - Relatively new discipline but has roots in ancient history Monday September 27, 2010 Prof. Chazan ANT 200 Introduction to Archaeology History of Archaeology - But, Reason is reverence for past not to learn about the past - Archaeology implies there is something in the past we don’t know already Superstition in Archaeology - Thunderstones - Believed to be formed in places where lightning struck - Serpent tongues Renaissance Europe - Emblem book of Johannes Sambucus in 1564 - Triumphal arches and beautiful walled cities, the chiseled faces of antique medal, Bear witness today to the greatness of spirits, whose names have not yet been penned for posterity - Earliest excavation - Implication is that recovering work WE can write their history and that is what archaeol- ogy does - Can write a history that did not exist before Resistance to Idea - Blindness of age refuses to witness prehistory - John Freer in 1797 - “The situation in which these weapons were found may tempt us to refer them tao very remote time indeed: even beyond that of the present world - Was ignored for 50 years Three Age System Monday September 27, 2010 Prof. Chazan ANT 200 Introduction to Archaeology History of Archaeology - Christian Jürgen Thomsen in 1816 - Divides archaeological history into three periods: - Stone Age - Sites that only have stone tools - Bronze Age - Sites that have mix of stone and bronze - Iron Age - Sites that have all three materials The Establishment of Human Antiquity - Jacques Boucher de Perthes - In Abbeville - Customs agent - Part-time zoologist - Publish a book about stone tools found with animal remains - Lyell visits Abbeville: 1859 - Saw Perthes material and saw it to be true - Landmark event - Suddenly discoveries were made everywhere - Origin of Species: 1859 - Shifted from 300 year period consistent with biblical history to vast unknown time peri- od
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