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Lecture 18

Lecture 18 - Homo sapiens - February 26.docx

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Keriann Mc Googan

February 26, 2013. Lecture 18 – Homo sapiens Quiz  In class, 1 hour long  Chapters 8 – 14  Lectures Jan 8 – Feb 26 (inclusive)  Format o Multiple choice o Fill-in-the-blank o Short answer  Bring pencil This Class  Anatomically modern humans o Evolutionary models o Earliest discoveries of modern humans o Homo floresiensis o Technology and Art in Upper Paleolithic Modern Humans  1. When did modern humans first appear?  2. Where did the transition take place?  3. What was the pace of evolutionary change?  4. How did the dispersal of modern humans to other areas of the Old World take plae? Origins of Anatomically Modern Humans  Three models: o 1. Complete Replacement Model  Anatomically modern humans arose in Africa  200 kya dispersed from Africa and completely replaced Premodern populations in Asia and Europe  Origin of modern humans = speciation event  Could not interbreed with other hominins  mtDNA:  mitochondria = energy processing in cells  mitochondria contain small amounts of DNA (mtDNA)  mitochondrial genes have properties that make them useful for reconstructing recent evolutionary history of human populations o 1. Maternal inheritance o 2. High mutation rate o 3. High copy number  The human species is less genetically variable than other species  Any two random humans, regardless of region, are more genetically similar than say chimps  The most likely explanation for the small amount of genetic variation in humans is that we have undergone population explosion  mtDNA derived only from women  Y-chromosome can tell us about the origins of the male side of the population  mtDNA from extinct hominins  Neandertals  Ancient modern Homo sapiens Italy, France, Czech Republic, Russia  mtDNA sequence patterns similar to living humans, different from Neandertals  BUT: contamination?  Nuclear Genome  2010: entire nuclear genome of Neandertals sequenced from 3 individuals from Vindija  Neandertal DNA 99.84% identical to modern humans  Some modern humans have Neandertal genes – but only non-Africans o Suggests that interbreeding occurred after humans migrated out of Africa o 2. Partial Replacement Model  Modern humans dispersed out of Africa  Interbreeding between modern humans and Premodern humans  No speciation event o 3. Multiregional Evolution  Premodern forms throughout Old World evolved into modern humans  Earliest modern humans did not arise exclusively in Africa  Gene flow…  ….. Where does this leave us?
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