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ANT203 November 1.pdf

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Xueda Song

SURVEY OF LIVING PRIMATESPrimates named by Linnaeus in Systema Naturaegrouped in Simia included monkeys and primatesTraitsShared with mammalsfur homeothermy longer gestation live births mammary glands heterodonty increased brain size ability for learning and behavioural flexibilityUnique relatively little because primates are very generalized physicallythey are defined more by behavioural traits than physical onesLiving nonhuman primates live in tropical and subtropical conditions throughout the Americas Africa and Asiaabout 230 different speciesrange from around 1 ounce to 400 poundsaccording to the fossil record share an ancestor at about 65 Ma with the first fossil primate found existing around 55 Ma pleisiadapis Extant primate taxonomy and adaptationsdiversitymost of the species are monkeys then lemurs and lorisesvery little of the species diversity is due to living ape and human speciesecologybiologybody size corresponds to diet locomotion activity patternsbehaviouractivity patterntime of activity diurnalday nocturnalnightsocial behaviourmore complex social interactionsreproductive strategiesconservationinvolves degree to which primates are threatened by extinctionmost factors in endangerment are the direct result of human activitydisease can spread from humansdeforestationhunting for food or otherPrimate adaptations Habitatrainforest tropical and subtropical conditions in the Old and New Worldsspecies also exist in neardesert conditions or very cold ones Japanese macaques have the northernmost distributionPrimate characteristicslocomotionarboreal at least have the capacity to live in treesvariety of movement methods pronograde on branches or suspensory
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