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ANT203 October 4.pdf

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Xueda Song

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LECTURE 3 THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF LIFE AND HEREDITYthe cell identified by Robert Hooke 1665 as cellula is the basic unit of lifeeukaryote an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus structure of eukaryotic cells cytoskeleton nucleus cell membrane mitochondria ribosomes and cytoplasmthere are somatic cells and gametesNeoxyribonucleic acidthe Universal Codeprotein synthesisbase pairs AT GCnucleotidesdouble helixProtein Synthesisproteins have various applicationsstructure ex collagenregulation of chemical reactions ex enzymesaffecting tissues and organs ex hormonesregulation of DNAamino acids are determined by a sequence of three DNA bases a triplettranscriptionthe first step is to copy the DNA message into a form of RNA called messenger RNA mRNAtranslation turns mRNA into tRN with the mRNA triplets or codons still specifying one amino acidGenes are sequences of DNA bases
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