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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Macroevolution - October 9.docx

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Keriann Mc Googan

October 9, 2012. Lecture 5 – Macroevolution Natural Selection and Behaviour  Behaviour = flexible o Individuals can adjust their behaviour in response to their environment/circumstances  E.g. soapberry bug and mate guarding o Seed eating insect found in US o Actual mating time (exchange of sperm) takes ten minutes, but males will stay in mounted position for hours  Called mate guarding  They do this to make sure other males don’t mate with the female in question o Problems with mate guarding = less time to/chance of mating with other mates, also leaves soapberry bugs vulnerable o The higher the male population, the more mate guarding  1. Character must vary o Variable patterns – some mate guarded a lot, others more in response to sex ratio  2. Variance affects fitness o Males with more flexible strategies = higher fitness  3. Character is heritable o Males has same strategies as their fathers  What is the observed behaviour? o Monkeys making bark-like noises at a snake’s presence o Mother apes using tools, children repeating their actions  What could have provoked this behaviour? o Oncoming snake o Presence of potential food, children’s exposure to mothers trying to get at food  What is the outcome? o Monkeys are made aware, snake goes away o More food for the apes, mother and child alike  What are the possible advantages of this behaviour? o More monkeys join in on noise-making, snake is no longer a threat o Potential aiding towards natural selection This Class: Macroevolution  Microevolution vs. macroevolution  Classification  What is a species? o Processes of speciation  Vertebrate evolutionary history  Mammalian evolution  Processes of Macroevolution Microevolution  How populations change over time  Affect morphology, physiology, and behaviour of a particular species in a particular environment o E.g. beak size Macroevolution  Large-scale evolutionary processes  How are new species, genera, families, etc. created and transformed over time? o E.g. Origin of humans Classification  How does one organize world’s biodiversity?  Classify biodiversity into categories o Also examining evolutionary relationships between different classifications/categories  Start with physical similarities  But MUST indicate evolutionary relationships  Taxonomy: rules of classification o Linnaeus 18 century  Only useful traits in taxonomy are indicative of evolutionary descent  Species, genus, family, superfamily o Multiple closely related species within genus, multiple closely related genera in families, multiple closely related families in superfamilies Definitions  Homology: similarities between organisms based on descent from common ancestor o E.g. limbs  Analogy: similarities between organisms based ONLY on common function, not evolutionary descent o E.g. wings in bugs vs. birds, bipedalism in chickens vs. humans  Homoplasy: separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms Determining Evolutionary Relationships  Similarities o 1. Trace evolutionary relationships, construct classifications o 2. Organisms compared using specific features (aka characters), some more important than others o 3. Both use homologies  Cladistics o More rigorous definition of what kind of homologies are most useful o Focus on derived traits o Ancestral vs. De
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