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Lecture 2

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Annette Bickford

ANT 204H1S: ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD LECTURE 2—OUTLINE January 17, 2012 Topic: Colonialism in Africa Readings: 1) Felix Greene, “How It Began” 2) Jerry Kloby “The Legacy Of Colonialism” 3) Colonialism in Africa, 1914 4) Wainaina, How to Write About Africa Recommended film: This Magnificent African Cake European colonization of Africa 1. Demand for Raw Materials: industrial revolution required natural resources, which Europe lacked. Sought in Asia, the Americas, Africa. Colonized African countries as a method of extracting raw materials. Need for Markets: 19th c. Europe produced surplus. Colonize - protect markets Commerce, Christianity, Civilization - missionaries & "civilization" of Africa. ‘The Scramble for Africa’: 1886 - 1914. 2. Revenue generation in colonial Africa 1.Mineral exploitation: Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and the Belgian Congo (Congo) = copper extraction. Colonial governments forced farmers into mining. 2.Large scale agricultural production. East and Southern Africa - large scale European owned farms. Angola (coffee), Kenya (coffee, tea), and Southern Rhodesia/Zimbabwe (tobacco, beef). Colonial governments removed good farm land from local populations, forcing many to work on European farms. 3.Small scale agricultural production. In colonies lacking large mineral deposits - cash crops for export: Groundnuts/peanuts (Senegal, Nigeria), coffee (Tanganyika, Rwanda, Uganda), cocoa (Ghana, Togo, Cote D'Ivoire) cotton (Mali, Niger, Sudan) tobacco (Malawi). 4.Supply of Labor. Forced migration to work in mines or on commercial farms. Recruitment f
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