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ANT204H1-lecture #3.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Saul Cohen

Jan 23, 2012 ANT204H1-LECTURE#3 Is progress inevitable? A. Opening Case Study: The Thaba-tseka Development project B. Ideas of progress: is positive C. Ideas of Development A. Lesotho-small landlocked county in Southern Africa -received development assistance from 26 different countries -72 international non-got organizations (including CIDA) It is an example of failed development -1975 World bank issues a report on Les0tho to justify a series of loans to the country Quote from fergurson article; “ Virtually untouched by modern economic development, Lestho was, and still is , basically, a traditional subsistence peasant society…… cont -compares this to the oxford history of South Africa “in 1837 the sotho of Basutolana.. had grain stored for four to 8 yrs ;in 188 white farmers ‘flocked’to them to buy rain. During 1872 (after the loss of their most fertile land west of the Caledon)the sotho exported 100,00 muids 9185lh bags) of grain.. andin 1877 when the demand for grain on diamond fields had fallen, “large quantities” were held by producers and shopkeepers in Basutolan” -world banks report on Lesotho is contradictory to the oxford history, perhaps the world bank overlooked it, they weren’t too bright, they view the world in a different frame therefore perceived it to be poverty stricken -propaganda, marketing of lesotho in a certain way to investors in order to get loans, the development industries are looking for something wrong with lesotho to give a reason to initiate development in this area -want more western domination of lestho to paint a picture of a helpless country and then dominate them with their so called help The meaning of ‘lesotho” -their condition is naturalized, not given a political or historical explanation, just have greater populations with increased birth rate and therefore will cause erosion of land ->poverty is naturalized B. ideas of progress -has a negative connotation, has a starting pt and end pt Jan 23, 2012 One end is the primitive label< ppl who have not progressed or changed their ways and the other end is ppl who are civilized label (modernized and developed) -primitive: ppl close to nature, savages, premodern, underdeveloped, uneducated ,rural , poor -Civilized; educated, urban, wealthy, modern, far away from nature, developed -progress instills a difference right away So poor and hungry I certainly was. But underdeveloped? I never thought-nor did anyone else that being poor meant being ‘underdeveloped’ and lacking human dignity (shrestha 1995) -progress represents something negative in association too ppl close to nature (primitive ppl), where was civilized ppl had science and logic that made them less dependent on nature, could live outside of it -later on primitive ppl are being revered, -civilization results in pollution which is environmentally destructive. Vandana Shiva vs. Jeffrey Sachs -Jeff Sachs: A gew generations ago, almost everybody was poor… the industrial -same as the world bank, some countries undergo progress and others just trail behind or fall back and poverty stricken -throughout the world countries that are impoverished, his solution was that a ladder, and once stepped up the ladder then you will keep going up the ladder, but the problem is that some countries are so low that they can’t reach the ladder, and his whole book focuses on the development and how to make undeveloped countries Vandana Shiva responds to Jeffery books: Says it’s a false history of poverty, all the riches from the west have
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