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University of Toronto St. George
Leslie Jermyn

The Magnificent th - Think about what motivated Europeans to establish control over most of Africa in 19 century - How they decided which bits each of them will claim - How did they treat colonial subjects? (You need to know why they colonized first to answer this question) - How did they manage the colonies - What did the colonial administration look like, what did they do - What may be some of the consequences – social, political, economic – for people today in Africa, of this colonial project and the fact that they were colonized because of certain motivations, etc - During colonization, only two countries remained out of Europe’s control - In 1884 Bismarck and a bunch of people met to settle colonial disputes o Everyone wanted a part of Africa - Didn’t care what irrational frontiers they made, they just wanted Africa - Banjul o Britain wanted to keep this river route, but France invading from the West got all the territories around the river, so, the French really wanted the river as well, BUT British insisted on keeping the river - Seize Africa and rule the country - Said that Africans were lazy and so Europe was justified in taking away their country from them - European invasions were never easy, there was always reisistence, and conquest led to a lot of ruthless killing - King was made to kiss the British empire’s foot and then was exiled - New technologies gave easy victories to the invaders; conquest resisters died - French – wherever good water and good land are foud, settlers go in, without finding out who’s land it may be. The settlers unsurprisingly agreed - Kenya farming lands were open to colonizers for next to nothing. At first they were welcomed by the Africans, but this didn’t last for long. Colonizers wanted land and labour. - People’s lands were taken away, people sought refuge in missionaries - By 1920s, half of the able bodied men were working as labours for the British – took advantage of settlers - Taxation – to cultivate the lands, they made the Africans pay taxes, but having no econmy, they had to work for settlers to earn the cash so that they could pay the taxes o Had to pay tax for their own houses, two shillings for each house - Government bought soldiers to take the children away, then send them to school. - In Northern Nigeria, colonial scene was very different. There were no white settlers, and things were peaceful. o Indirect rule was easier – local princes and kings kept the rule, and those at the top had much to gain o Kings were able to stay in power, able to call on their own local retainers to govern the everyday affairs of the country o For part of Nigeria, British rule did not mean anything, life went on - Frnech colonies o British people thought their natives couldn’t become anything o French thought that in the end, all the Africans would become Black Frenchmen – Assimilation  But the number of people in certain areas was just too great for assimilation  Diagne – First black man to be elected to French, he demanded black rights, etc - WWI – French - Crimean War – more than 200 000 african troops were sent to fronts, and at least 170 000 died (??) o White men and black men were equal in the trenches – but were they equal in the colonies? - With the coming of peace in 1918, there was a more thorough system of taxation – to pay for the government - Founding of first hospitals, and other things of Western life – what colonizers brought o But natives had to pay for these things, through crops that brought cash - But cash crop success also brought problems o Monoculture – o Businessmen just wanted to produce oil for the international market – so there was a tendency to specilize o Everyone specialized in what they did best – reliance on one cropdependance - 1929 – Depression  food production badly hit because of land taken for cash crops - What was true of the French empire was true of the others as well - Ex. Cocoa o Harvested by Africans who sold it to British and other foreign, sell it at artificially low prices o Became biggest producer of cocoa, but gains were not e
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