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University of Toronto St. George
Leslie Jermyn

Tuesday May 26 , 2009 Fossil Fuels, Fundamentalism & Feminism Outline 1. Intro 2. History of a pipeline 3. Fundamentalisms (plural) 4. Colonial Feminism 5. Culture and Relativism/Conclusion Quiz Definitions, compare across case studies, define and tell relevance, Know history of current events (Darfur, Sudan, Afghanistan, Rwanda), Last class what did the narrator say about Taliban? - It didnt go into the long term causes, it was very short-term - National Geographic always favours USA in a good light - National Geographic was geared towards general audience, so the goal is not to investigate too deeply the politics, it is simply to present whats going on - Did not address 9/11 at all, if you only saw that film, you would think its only a Soviet/Taliban problem and had nothing to do with the USA - Made it sound like there was no war (even though it was made inn 2006) - Any shots of war were from the civil war with Soviet, which was in the past, there was nothing to do with the current war - Focused on the presence of the KGB during the excavation of the gold, and never talked about CIA funding the Mujahideen From Last lecture Thinking about connection between Cold War and terrorism - Cold War was over, but a number of conditions established under the Cold War, geopolitical conditions, continued to impact current geopolitics, some of those include: establishment of military industrial complexes in the major powers (biggest is USA). They still exist and are still producing military stuff - Second a rejection of third way alternatives o Although today there is not one, two , and three there is only one. The USA style. - Third - Under cold war regime, there were numerous instances where the USA tried to manipulate which government won elections, created coups to overthrow governments they didnt like, and this still happens today o One contemporary example is attempted coup against Hugo Chavez in 2003 o It became clear that USA was behind the groups in Venezuela who tried to overthrow Chavez - Fourth Concern for geostrategic advantage has not stopped. USA still tries to pursue this today o Establishing military bases, just like they did in the Cold War o Missile sites, trying to get military stuff in other parts of the world, want military bases in other places o Now there is a new element in geostrategic ball game OIL! Fossil fuels/hydrocarbons. Not just oil, its also natural gas Any fossil fuel has become the focus of a great deal of geostrategic manipulation History of a Pipeline - The Afghan people have suffered at the hands of Western imperial stuff - Due to their geostrategic position as a buffer between what used to be Tsarist Russia (pre-Revolutionary) and British Empire controlling what was then India - The Durang line was established as the end point of India, Afghanistan was a buffer state meant to keep the Russians on one side and British on the other. This idea continues even after the Soviet revolution, because the British are still concerned to keep the Soviets far away - Today, some million Afghans are suffering mental disorders because of the constant pressure on their way of life - US Bombing on Afghanistan in 2001 involved=s CIA, Soviet, fossil fuels, etc - 1979 USA started funding Islamic groups in Afghanistan, to create resisters to HINDER and harass the Soviet, whio invaded Afghanistan (at the behest of the unpopular communist government). It was a government tht was communist and wanted the Soviets to invade to provide military power.- The USA by that point, 1980, is determined to see the end of the Soviet Union, who Reagan called the evil empire. He authorizes that the CIA should do anything in its power to break the Russians. - So the CIA establishes training camp and establishes the mujahideen. The USA began to supply them with stinger missiles, used to shoot down Soviet planes. - But the training camps did more than just arm and teach stinger guns, they also became camps that attracted the interest of the Afghan Arabs i.e. Muslim men from around the Islamic world (not jus from Saudi) who find it appealing to participate in a Jihad (a war against Soviet). People from all over the world came to participate - Osama Bin Laden was one such Arab. - USA pulls out once Soviet Union collapses, what follows is frankly chaos. Communists try to come back in, mujahideen warlords fighting to keep their territories, people wanted to take control of the whole country, etc. Basically now there is continued civil war. - By 1994 one group emerges as apparently looking strong TALIBAN - By 1996, Taliban had control of Kabul, and the USA then returns its attention to Afghanistan and deals with the Taliban, acknowledging their government, and begins to court this government o Primary reason for this natural gas regions in TURMANISTAN, They are natural deposits, but the problem is that this is not a developed industrial area, so they have to sell it to someone else. o But how do you get it to the countries who want to buy the gas? So you need to pipe it out. Theres only two possible ways to get it out of the region Through Iran, Black Sea, Mediterranean South Afghanistan to Pakistan and to the ocean - USA does not want it to go through Iran, because it is very anti-Iran because of the revolution in 1979 in Iran, they want it to exit through their allies in Pakistan - The USA company most concerned with this is an oil company called UNOCAL. UNOCAL with the help of USA diplomacy establishes a USA consortium, to plan and arrange. This consortium is called CENTGAS. UNOCAL is the main interest of CENTGAS - 1998 the deal has not been signed, but plans are proceeding, looks like they will build their pipeline, but in 1998 Al- Qaeda bombs USA embassies in Kenya and Tanzania o Political pressure at home surfaces to force UNOCAL to pull out of the deal, and the perception is Al Qaeda
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