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University of Toronto St. George
Annette Bickford

Lecture #1 Wednesday, January 18 , 2012 Eurocentrism – standard/normal is a european ideal. Europe is naturalized as the centre . Everything else is deemed as the “other”, subsidized. COLONIALISM IN AFRICA 1800 - western powers held and governed 35% of the earth surface - 1878, the proportion was 67% - increase of 83,000km2 per year - 1914 – 85% of the earth’s lands, sa colonies, protectorates, dominions, common wealth, etc. There was a steady huge increase - there was a lot of resistence and resentment - a whole machinery of colonial army evolved aimed at maintaining the colonial infrastructure Anthropology - academic discipline was born in and supported colonial domination - father of sociology was rather concervative – Durkheim - the american army has hired anthrpologists to go to places like Iraq , and paid high 200,000$ /yr – took on unethical positions. - Anthropologists have been working for colonial-neocolonial powers for a very long time. - 1927, when colonial system was in full swing, malinowsky “ the practical value… savage labor” Anthropological theories of racial superiority divided the world into advance and primative ppl - Pigme pop at the Zoo in the Bronx in 1906 Colonialism - shared the common factor of taking land - type 1.) colonial powers massed far flung colonies throughout the world - 2.) increasing nations land by swollowing up neighboring regions and forcing them into the nation - colonization ended after wwII, becoming own nation states - Colonial presence in the USA – ther term empire has been increasingly used in relation to the USA , post 911 – by right wing cconservatives. - American neoconservatives proclaim that USA must conceive itself as a colonial power. BUT america was found as a republic. Therefore the term is generally avoided in american discourse. - A lot of americans mark their actions in defense of liberty, though this is contrary to hsitory - War on Terror – indication to provide moral language to set the rules to international game, and american interest expanded across the world - Axes of Evil – Iran Iraq & North Korea – under this guise of war on terror, people got really afraid, and the population was trigured by a sense of fear. - Uber capitaism, no restraints on capitalism. - A free market = no restraints and cops and gov can do whatever they want ( ie. bid on jobs, 5 cents/hr). the bottom line would be money - Social conservatism – moralistic – and yet economically very libertarian ( ie. Political Compass - ) - Bush admin to the international community revolved around Iraq becomig a beecon of the free market to the middle east. It was more about economics and capitalism. The “ terror” was use das an overlay. - Americans do not believe their country is an empire – but the wars need to be sumerged into a discourse on fears. Ie.t he worl don terror justified any empirial action. The war on terror provides the cover for empirical action so that empire does not need to mentioned - American attempts to secure markets and make capitals - sim to Colonialism but dif in limits for there are no government restrictions. The nations such as Iran Iraq and North Korea will see the wrath of American Empire as they try and define their own liberty. - READING – - opening trade in China. Opium grown in india and then shipped to China and opened trade. Now the opium has shifted to oil. - Wars are still fought to control the production, transport and sale of products such as oil European Colonization of Africa 1.) Demand for raw material 2.) Need for markets 3.) Commerce, christianity, “civilization” th - #1 In the 19 cent there was no shrotage in labor in Europe - Prophets made from trade in asia, americas, africa, financed the industrial revolution. - The money for industrial rev. came evne from the slave trade - Europe lacked natural resources (ie. cotton. Cotton was grown in England/American souther – the quasi colonial region in america for cotton there didn’t mean anything) - Britian and other countries were out to find resources to finance and feed the industrial growth - #2 – by the late 19 cent, the industry was making more goods than consumers – so they sought more markets around the world. - As competition for industries for markets grew
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