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Annette Bickford

Lecture #2 Wednesday, January 25 , 2012h - The National Geographic WILL BE TESTED ON - Vogue Fashion Shoot – more of an example for exam, not tested on - Good Muslim Bad Muslim – example for exam, not tested on Last Week - cartography, representation of Mercator Map and Peters Map - Colonialism and traderoutes in Africa Today - representation of the other - iconography, how people are represented, etc Vogue Poverty Shoot - Birkin Kelly Bag - $100,000 + - Humor is a conduit for hate messages , it is a powerful medium - Racist, dum blonde jokes, etc. puts you in in a uncomfortable sitaution to oppose the “funnyness” - Similarly, fashion is a conduit for fashion as well - Promotes a theatre of “otherness” - The photoshoot started a heated debate - Average indian people hold expensive products - The editor responded “ lighten up,” - The captions don’t even bother to name the subjects who are merely used as props - Highlights a shark contrast between the rich and poor. - Spread displays the poor as props, and dehumanizes those at the expense o f the others Social Evolutionism - anthro emerged in the late 19 cent. - British and NA were steped in notions of progress and western seniority. As the apaz of civilization - First model used to explain social organization was social evolutionism (the strong survive and gets rich – naturalizing such as a social darwinism. The peple who are in power deserve to be there because they are evolutionarily more “fit”) - Evolution from being primative to civilized = “progress” - Societies as savage , barbaric and civilized - Biological characteristics and biosocial explanation (biological determinism – idea that certain social characteristics are innate and adaptive) th - Social evolutionism became rejected in the early 20 cent, for people saw the problematic assumptions that made societies likes species who evolved for the struggle of survival. They sawit as problematic – colonized groups were inferior and primative. Rationalized colonial domination - Anthro emerged as a discipline within this context - “Social Fatherhood” - when we are not terribly concerned about the paternity of the child, so as men, we are all the fathers about the children. No worry about who the father is and who is to take responsibility. - Social evolution is set out to explain what they already assumed – that western gender arrangement was a result of an evolutionary process – that we are superior. - Projecting contemp western behaviors provides a rational about a consistent inegalitarian form (its not us, its human nature – too bad, we cant control human nature) - Bio- Social Evolution – social intellectual etc. are physiologically based (innate racial differences, gender, etc. ) - Gendered behaviors get routinely explained about how they helped our species get complete for evolutionary survival. - Social Evolutionism has now been manifested in sociol biology and evolutionism - Has an agenda to support prevailing arrangements to work and block change. These assumptions are not fully supported though National Geographic - Iconography: the racial distivution of female nudity in national gegraphic perpetuates old myths about black women’s sexuality - Relies on cultural evolutionary perspective that has grafted on a continuim of skin colour – west on rationality and freedom, while the other as vulnerable, superstitious , primative - Savegry to Civilized, connecting sin colour as something self-evident and in the body (racializeed – you got rhythm, you cant drive, etc. – think about how ludacris it is to be racial about eye colour?) - Experience of race is very real, but race isnt. (Black man getting a cab) - “race” doesn’t have a solid basis. National Geographic presents degress of skin colour - The experiment determines whether bronze ppl were pertrayed differently than black – complex evoltuionary schema or a blaten comparison from black and white - Dark Skin people (28%), Bronze (60%) , Light (12%) – editorial attention focused ons kin colour to suggest a evoltuionary scale marked by skin colour. Labour - bronze dark skinned ppl are more like protrayed as poor and technologically backward in NG. Though the magazine presents them as poor and living well - whites are associated with machines than simple tools, more often depicted at rest (drinking beer) first darker who are working Ritual and Dress - mor eppl of colour were engaged in ritual (Eurocentricm – we have religion, they have ritual. ) - supersitiion was often represented by ritual, and science by technology - the darker persons skin colour is less likely portrayed in wesern clothes - NG depiction suggests a linear evolutonar projectory from primative to modern. Some are still tech backwards - Bronze ppl as less poor – proof that progress is possible but links that set of progress to absolute skin colour Gender Relations - association of men and women with nature vs. Culture - men = culture, women =nature - men associated with public sphere and politics, creativitty - women – nature, private, procreative. - Subjected universality is prominent in the photos – with women as an “extension” of nature Hypersexuality - “representation of sexuality that is all encompassing and dehumanizing and objectifies ppl” women cant be raped, they want it all the time - the racial distrivbution of female nudity “black mans playboy” – reinforces the myths of black womens hypersuuality. - Assumes that white women have acquired modesty vs blacks who have not - Suggestive that women of african descent are at ease unclothed, thus stigmatizing them - Colour owmen code sex (animal, dark, dangerous) - Women associated with leopard skin – signifying animalization, hypersexuality, closeness to nature – why black women are so often pictured with it - Leopard skin does tend to signify lower social class when white women wear it - The american women is idealized as progressive and eviable Motherhood - the mood up to savergy to civilization was indexed o the treatment of women from labo
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