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ANT208H1 (76)
Dan Sellen (28)
Lecture

Lecture 1

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT208H1
Professor
Dan Sellen
Semester
Winter

Description
ANT208H1S▯ January 17, 2013 Medical Anthropology: Evolution & culture - Which ideas link anthropology & medicine? - copies of 2nd ed. on reserve @ libraries if needed - summary of slides available on Portal after lecture - todayʼs lecture will be describing the subject of Medical Anthropology as a discipline and itʼs history - focus of class is evolution of human health vulnerabilities but not all biological reasons - we must consider the social and cultural adaptations. - key terms: anthropology, culture, emic/etic, ethography, ethnology, disease, nosology Slide 1 - Defining Anthropology - aims - history - 4 sub disciplines - culture concept - result and influence on health based on evolution - biocultural perspective - w/i broad field of Anthropology, many like to turn attention of any human study into biocultural perspective - health and history of illness - you can consider the biocultural perspective of several things (ie. food, health) 2 - Defining Medical Anthropology - disease | Illness | Sickness | Suffering - locating Health (3 bodies) - political economy (critical Approach) - ethnomedicine (ie. inequalities via geography) - aim is to look at concepts by applying definitions. Some terms have multiple interpretations so gets tricky and answers can get flexible - approaches: - Evolutionary: How did this happen - Interpretive: How do we feel sickness - Applied: Public health 3 - Anthropology: aims to investigate things about people (describe + understand) ▯ - cultural + biological ▯ ▯ - are these separate or related? weʼre focusing on a biocultural approach ▯ ▯ in this class so weʼre looking at similarities applied to health ▯ - similarities + differences ▯ ▯ - understand differences + biological effects (ie. resource disparities) ▯ ▯ ▯ - some people have greater disparities and needs ▯ ▯ - look at what is common to all individuals and cultures ▯ - space + time ▯ ▯ - social space(self-identity, cultures, & traditions) ▯ ▯ - geographic space (sociopolitics, weather, health care availability) ▯ ▯ - change in lifetimes, historic, prehistoric ▯ ▯ ▯ - lifetime = what happens during recent history ▯ ▯ ▯ - historic = written/documented record of human existence ▯ ▯ ▯ - prehistoric = non-written record of human existence ▯ - humans + closely related species ▯ ▯ - apes, chimpanzees, etc. 4 - Holistic Approach To Study Of Human Beings ▯ - aims at full + coherent understanding (collect info from all three and puzzle what you learned ▯ together) ANT208H1S▯ January 17, 2013 ▯ ▯ - broad + inclusive ▯ ▯ - biological + cultural ▯ ▯ - physiological + social 5 - Culture & Biology ▯ - culture is a key component of biology. ie) many languages, varying diets by region. ▯ - biology is a key component of culture. ie) life-histories + large brain + vocal range allowing ▯ complex languages. ▯ - they heavily influence each other. ▯ - human adaptations are based on both - “biocultural” 6 - Biocultural Analysis ▯ - humans have an evolutionary history, species today is in a different place due to greater ▯ knowledge of adaptation + physical limits + reproduction. ▯ - look at data published then compare to same data set from 20, 50, etc. yrs ago then discuss ▯ where we are now. ▯ - define condition, ie) influenza viral infection ▯ ▯ - evolutionary: natural selection favors reproduction over health ▯ ▯ - historical: we tend to focus primarily on contemporary medical problems ▯ ▯ - cross-cultural: chance of getting a certain disease and/or vaccine depend on culture, ▯ ▯ education %, whether or not culture values health over other things. ▯ ▯ - political/economic: strong public health infrastructure combatted higher rates of flu in 2 1 0 ▯ ▯ 2 ▯ ▯ ▯ - posters to wash hands more carefully ▯ ▯ ▯ - vaccines + medications widely available 7 - Nature & Cause of Variation ▯ - change in variation and susceptibility ▯ - changes over time (different time scales) ▯ ▯ - hierarchy before in certain countries, now most viewed as equal ▯ - many topics - language + religion + kinship + power relationships + gender + etc... 8 - How Do You Collect Data In Diff. Anthropological Fields? ▯ - socio-cultural: via talking/interacting with individuals ▯ - evolutionary: look at physical body + genetics (formerly known as Biological Anthropology) ▯ - linguistics: effects of languages ▯ - archaeology: excavation for greater knowledge of past 9 - Sociocultural Anthropology: Core Concepts ▯ - combines ethnography (instrument in anthropology-related research - writing from past about ▯ different cultures) + ethnology (differences + similarities in society and culture) ▯ 10 - Culture: Patterns of thinking + behavior common to a group of people ▯ - is culture based on individual or population? can one person be cultured? ▯ - rituals, working life, diets, family formation, healing practices ▯ - includes beliefs + values + traditions + practices ▯ ▯ - values: what one “should do” based on occupation / age / life situation ▯ ▯ - traditions: marriages, celebrations, social/developmental milestones ▯ - everything we do is culture - how does this
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