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Lecture 3

Lecture Three

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Sellen

Medical Anthropology: Lecture 2: Evolutionary Biology. Evolution Relation between the terms that follow: - Genotype - Phenotype - Inheritance Evolution: Natural Selection - Idea that all living organisms have changed over time. - The most widely tested and accepted theory to explain the natural world – would be the theory of natural selection. - Evolution: Change in the average phenotype(s) over time. Change in the way members of population(s) appear. - Adaptation - Fits to the environment. - Natural Selection – Differentiation in fitness. - Fitness – Survival and reproduction (whether direct or indirect). Measures how well one group does against another group. - Change in the relative frequency of genes within the gene pool. - Some changes are non-adaptive- geno-typically and/or phenotypically. - Transmission typically occurs through direct means like reproduction. Species - … change over time. - Length of time ensued is typically measured through: Fossil record Comparative anatomy Direct Observation – “microevolution” - All have a similar origin Unity through diversity. - Some differences are adaptations: Adaptive radiation Convergent Design – Artificial Design. - The lack of genetic mutation would result in the lack of natural selection. Macroevolution - Creation of new species. - Graphical diagram. - Cladistics diagram. Human Examples - Lactase Persistence: Milk Drinking - Vitamin D: Skin Pigmentation - Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive Impairment All of the above involve tradeoffs
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