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Marcel Danesi

ANT253- Lecture5 Tuesday October 9, 2012 Test; covers up to the part of chapter one and all of chapter 2. Multiple choice formate. Next week October 15 2012. Practices questions will be up by Wednesday October 10 2012. The green book is the one we will be tested on Last class; phoneme; distcitive unit in sound. Changed the sound changes the meaning. All other sound is connected to phoneme is some way or another (apsperiated P) – occurs at the beginning of a word and followed by vowel called an allophone – example L in love change the L to D and you get Dove.” I will Kill Bill” will kill bill – tongue goes to the back- dental (back of throat velar) Complementary distribution; where one occurs and the other does not. The L occurs when the L is in the front or middle, when it is in the back of words its in the back of the mouth. Commutation test = Pin and Bin, you change the meaning of the word Distinctice features Syllables, words have stress, tone, nucleus and diplting – characteristics of any language but can be used for different purposes in different lanuages Stress:  when we speak we don’t just speck sound, contents and vowels. We hold them longer- that how we process the flow of language. Three kinds of stress 1) primary 2) secondary 3) truchery. Lots of stress, not so much, and none at all. Does it have an effect on us? Yes , it does. Example-  Sarah is Italian – stress is at the word Italian or you can say it different like Sarah is Italian (not mary), or Alex is arriving tomorrow (not fred) sarah, alex and danny are Italian Tone:  If you didn’t use anytone; imagine singing a song- tone adds qualities to it  In English it does not add meaning to it but it gives a quality to it- different interpretation of the sound. Some languages use the tone as a sound of meaning  Ma in Chinese; 1) high level – mother 2) high rising – horse 3) (falling)-scold.  Your ear has to get trained to it because in Chinese it is phonemic Intonation  English uses intonation;usues tone but not to distinguish meaning 1) Marie is French Tag  Something added on at the end, part of conversation Grammar  Divdied into two parts 1) morphology 2) syntax  Morphology; how words are construced; the bits and pieces of world construction – it is not random. Example: predominantly. Pre can be used some use somewhere else – prehistoric  Dominant – used as a word itself  Tly- this and pre cannot be exsistant on its on  Each part has its own name, Pre (morpheme; you can use it again. Basic units of meaning. Have a function or meaning). Dominant can exsist on its own so its called an unbound-meaning it can be there own its own. Pre and tly – are called bound- they need something there to make sense  Two process of morphology. Noun to a verd = derivation  In comple ly: what in called? Don’t confuse that in with the preposition in (in school). In is bound-complete is unbound. Ly is bound. Another word for bound is called alfix- if the alfix is is the beginning its called the prefix and it is at the end of a word then it is called suffex Swahili  1) nitasoma – “I will read”  Nilisoma- “I read”  Utasome- “you will read”  Ulisoma – “you read (past”)  Where do you make the first cut? Soma? Why? Because it reoccurs (read)  Next cut; what does Nit mean? Its means” I”  The next is Uwhich means “you”  Ta is “will”  And li is pastence  Bluma (not real) means eat- how will you say I will eat? NitaBluma. How will you say I ate? Nilabluma  If you know how to morpohological analysis then you can actually construct a language grammar Free and bound or unbound morphine  Affiexes: Prefix, suffex  it is yellow – lakna it is not yello iklankno  it is hot – palli it is not hot – ikpallo Allomorphs  variant of a morphene; (give a technical name and classify it)  pot you adds s you get pots. Kick add s kicks plural = s which goes at the end. Dog adds s is gods. However is it Dog s or Dog (z) it is not /s/ it is /z/  church – is it with an s to make Church /s/ or /z/ or /iz/ - (upside down e)  three things to deal with: and /s/ /z/ or /iz/ - when do you use each of them? Look at the last sound before you add them. If ends with voiceless consenent then you use the voiceless voice /s/ if it isvoiced then you use the voiced one /z/ other than if it ends with a______________ - get from sa
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