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Lecture 17

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Shawn Lehman

ANT333 Lecture #17 – Primate Communities & Biogeography Biogeography Defined  Study of the geographical distribution of organisms  Concerned with why something is where it is and why it is absent in other arrears  Absence is harder to determine Biogeography  Determine non-random patterns of distribution and diversity.  Ecological models: quality and size of habitats play key roles in determining distribution and diversity. – what’s there now  Historical models: distribution and diversity result of series of events that led to origin, dispersal, and extinction of taxa Species-Area Relationships  Positive relationship between # of species and size of area.  For example, Reed and Fleagle (1995) documented high correlation (R2= 0.87) between number of primate species and area of rain forest for major continents. Species-Area Relationships in Caribbean Bats  Positive slope How does it Work?  Many ecological processes used to explain species-area relationships: rainfall (correlated with plant abundance/diversity), habitat diversity (less competition for resources), & latitude (closer to equator = more diversity).  At regional level, habitat diversity hypothesis one of most readily accepted theories used to explain species-area relationships: species richness increases with an increase in area because larger areas have a greater diversity of habitats. Island Biogeography  (Robert McArthur and E.O. Wilson)  How do size and distance from mainland affect species richness of island communities?  Matrix (water) inhospitable (important in a moment)  Null model – everything goes back to a perfect state  Effect of Distance From the Mainland on Species Richness o # species fluctuates then reaches equilibrium o Near Islands higher Rate of Colonization o Near Islands higher equilibrium # of species Effect of Distance From the Mainland on Species Richness 1 Effect of Island Size on Species Richness  Two Major Things Happening 1. Colonization (Immigration and Establishment) Colonization rates decreases as # species increases (Niches filled). As # species present increases, new immigrants are no longer new species. Colonization rates greater on near islands than on far islands (More likely to get there) 2. Extinction (Emigration and Death) Extinction rate increases as # species increases (Competition, Predation) Extinction rates greater on smaller islands (Limited Resources, Smaller Populations) Equilibrium Model Two Main Predictions of Island Biogeography  Islands close to a source area should have a higher # species than islands further from source area for islands of equivalent areas.  Larger islands should have more species than smaller islands for islands located at similar distances from source area. Island Biogeography  Small islands are expected to have lower immigration rates & higher extinction rates, & hence less species than large islands.  Smaller target for immigration  Fewer niches for immigration  Model does not consider latitude Island Biogeography  Far islands of same size are expected to have lower immigration rates, & hence less species than near islands.  Distance from mainland source of immigrants Must be Careful in Application of Island Biogeography to "Habitat Islands"  Habitat diversity confounds effects of area  Degree of Isolation in habitat islands may be difficult to assess 
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