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Lecture 2

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Shawn Lehman

ANT333 Lecture 2 - Review of Living Primates & Systematics: Strepsirhines. *Know cladistics chart Modern Gradistic View of Primate Classification Strepsirhines  Many aspects of the teeth, skulls, and limbs of strepsirhines are similar to those found in primates of the Eocene epoch (50-40 MYA).  It is the retention of primitive features that characterize strepsirhines.  Not “primitive”, their traits have allowed them to survive for many years without having to change Strepsirhines United by 3 Specialized Features of “Hard Anatomy” 1. Tooth Comb - Lower incisors, used for grooming 2. Laterally flaring talus - Heel bone 3. Grooming claw on second digit of feet. - The rest are nails Skull of Strepsirhines: Retains Primitive Primate Features  Simple postorbital bar (without postorbital closure)  Relatively small braincase – compared to haplorhines  Primitive mammalian nasal region with a sphenoid recess o Nose sticks out – rely more on olfaction o Wet rhinarium Strepsirhine Reproductive System: Primitive Primate Characteristics  At least two pairs of nipples  A bicornate uterus - two sides - primitive  Epitheliochorial type of placentation Families of Extant Strepsirhines Madagascar _________ Africa ___________ Asia - Cheirogaleids - Lorises - Lorises - Lemurids - Galagos - Indriids - Lepilemurids - Daubentoniids Five families in Lemuroidea (Malagasy lemurs) 1). Cheirogaleidae 2). Lemuridae 3). Lepilemuridae “-idea” ending = family 4). Indriidae 5). Daubentaniidae 1 I. Family Cheirogalidae  Five extant genera: 1). Microcebus – Mouse lemur 2). Mirza – Coquerel’s Dwarf lemur 3). Cheirogeleus – Dwarf lemur 4). Phaner – Fork-marked lemur 5). Allocebus – Hairy-eared dwarf lemur Family Cheirogaleidae: 1. Genus Microcebus  Smallest living primates (23-60 g)  Nocturnal, most active just after nightfall and before sunrise  Omnivorous (insects, fruit, nectar).  Solitary foragers & seasonal breeders  Abundant  Massive Predation  Five fingers 2. Genus Mirza  Mirza (300-325 g) substantially bigger than Microcebus  Found higher in forest, tend to prefer thicker and taller trees  Diet is similar to Microcebus expect Mirza eat more gum 3. Genus Cheirogaleus  C. medius group (280 g) found in western & southern dry forests, C. major group (360-440 g) in humid forests of eastern and southern Madagascar.  Five months in hibernation  Primarily frugivorous, supplement diet with insects and leaves  Store fat in tails  All Cheirogalids hibernate for months of each year  Pollinate flowers 4. Genus Phaner  Largest cheirogaleid (460 g)  Specialized gum feeders  Long procumbent incisors, long canines, long narrow tongue, large caecum (digestive system allows for fermentation, & keeled fingernails 5. Genus Allocebus  Rediscovered in the late 1980s in NE Madagascar  Weighs 84 - 92 g  Little
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