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ANT376 Lecture 4

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Hillary Cunningham

*next Thurs quiz Lecture 4 Metaphysics of Apes January-30-14 12:09 PM The Animal Human Divide continued… And the Metaphysics of Apes.. - Cultural artifact - Western culture, and the history of ideas Last week: - Animals and animality - Definition of animal, the divide takes diff orientations/configurations - One definition had the human totally outside from that definition - One definition incorporated the human into the definition of 'an animal' - Human with animalistic characteristics - Idea of animal characteristics - have negative connotations, and moral connotations as well - Animality = from dictionary point of view, have set of characteristic at least in the human - not mediated by ethical and rational - How the human animal divide unfold in the science of taxonomy, biology, philosophy ..etc Monkey and Apes = key site for the exploration for the engagement of the human-animal divide [Text] Disney: "The Jungle Book" - Boy raised by animals - Animal and human interacting - Divide is defined by technology - Text is saying that technology and fire and uses is something that distinguishes humans and animals - The Orangutan is closer to human, thus he demonstrates a lot of human characteristics, while his friends are monkeys, and are "below" him in the animal taxonomy ○ Social darwinism - Evolution is an ascending notion toward civilization - Crossing over the divide (human-animal) - Racism ○ 'throne' like chair/space ○ Use of jazz = connotation with culture (African culture) ○ Louie Prima singing (not AA, he is Italian), ○ Dixie land jazz ○ Or any type of jazz resonates with African American, street music, context in Afr-Am culture ○ White encroachment / consumption of jazz - King Louie ? - Louie Armstrong*** (1901-1971) = king of jazz***, plays trumpet ○ Playing the primate ○ Liminal space between animal and human ○ African and American, racialization of Black / ethnic identity - Expressed through jazz, Carl Linnaeus, Rene Descartes, and Charles Darwin - Descartes ○ "I think, therefore I am" ○ There is a definite divide between human and animal ○ Contextualize the question of human-animal divide ○ Philosophy of mind ○ Irrational mind, mind capable of thought ○ Loaded theological concepts ○ Creation, Adam emerges as a dominant presence in the ladder of life ○ "Great Chain of Being" - Christian/ medieval , hierarchal (rigid), ordered,  Top to bottom = God, angels, Kings, Lords...Man,...animals…  Human orient toward God,  Material world  Conflict ○ Rational thought, quality of human ○ Corporeal and incorporeal dynamics ( refer to spiritual connection) ○ Speech = expression of thought ○ Animals don't have thought, they don't have speech - Linnaeus ○ Historian ○ Taxonomy - classify information of the natural world ○ 18thc = exploration of natural world ○ Finding new things, plants, fauna .. ○ He puts human in animal kingdom ○ He argues that from strict biological point of view, human is part of animal kingdom ○ Monkeys and humans in same categories ○ Hybridities are still platformed on the dualism in itself ○ Creating a system that subjects the human is important ○ Has the potential to disrupt the hierarchal model of the human-animal difference ○ He looked at monkeys and looked at reports Lectures Page 1 ○ He looked at monkeys and looked at reports ○ Anitomical level - humans and animals are so similar that he put them together in same cateogory ○ Theologically - human relationship to God  This pulls humans down to the material world, but also pulls animals up closer to God  But humans were said to be created in the image of God … so this claim that Linnaeus makes of human and animals in the same category … is significant in saying something about what God is like then.. Descartes Linnaeus Darwin Nicholaes Tulp (1593-1674) George Cuvier 1769-1832 Charles Lyell 1797-1875 -Anatomist -First natural scientist -Conduct experiments and dissections -Fossil record and living species into on primates classification -Produce illustrations that comes -Believe that organisms change over time available to small growing scientists -Catastrophes kill life, and becomes extinct -Famous picture of the anatomy class (The teacher there is Nicholaes Tulp) Jean-Baptist Lamarck 1744-1829 -Research and illustrations -Natural history ○ Show distinct diff in anatomy -Provide the platform for evolutionary theory -Suggests that there are 2 forces at work, in evolution Edward Tyson 1651-1708 -That life forms do change over time -Biochemical force that drive them to higher complexity
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