ARC132 - Lecture 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Architecture Studies
Zeynep Celik

Lecture 2 - Histories of the Present II: Metropolis and Architecture  Fritz Lang, Metropolis, 1927  early sci-fi --> yr: 2026  metropolis: 2 parts  superstructure --> only skyscrapers --> constructed w/ Manhatten template  metropolis of future w/ very developed tech.  underworld (underneath superstructure) --> workers toil in bad conditions  plot: son of master of metropolis --> job: reconcile 2 sides of metropolis (super- & infrastructure)  unify both parts  * Utopia - imaginary + remote place; place of ideal perfection  * Dystopia - imaginary place where ppl = dehumanized + often fearful lives  both inform how modern ARC views city  Charlie Chaplin, Modern Times, 1936  Steamship routes, circa 1900  metropolis emerged from force of modernity + how ARC discourse started dealing w/ metropolis prob's  modern ARC history = inseparable from modern metropolis history  global modernity:  globaliza'n - world became global earlier  industrial capitalism - economic sys. fed from mechanized machinery (industry) instead of commerce  industrial revolu'n - 1 revolu'n coupled w/ agricultural revolu'n  end of 18 C : mechaniza'n of produc'n + agriculture --> started in England  2 revolu'n - end of 19 C --> fundamental economic + social shift --> industry, machine manufacture, new social classes  causes of shift in mankind b/c of technological advancements + accumula'n of capital thru agriculture + global expansion  therefore, world connected to capital labour  effects of emergence of industrial capitalism  unprecedented economic growth, displacement of pop. from countryside to city + transforma'n in social structures  18 C:  emergence of new social class: bourgeoisie (middle class)  crea'n of proletariat (working class) living in city - ppl paid on hr'ly basis + factories --> work time separated from leisure time  therefore, time = transformed  spatial conseq. - labour + capital enter urban centers --> rise of modern metropolis  new economic, social, + spatial order; emergence of metropolis  chart - growth of European cities btwn 1500 - 1800  * Metropolis - big city  * Urbanism  characteristic life of city dwellers  study of physical means of urban sites  city/town planning Problem of Industrial City (City of Industrial Capitalism)  Friedrich Engels + The Condi'n of the Working Classes in England (1845)  Engels - German industrialist, theorist, philosopher; worked closely + financially supported Karl Marx  recorded living condi'ns in Manchester  talks abt spatial conseq's of industrial capitalism  Marx + Engels found paradoxes in industrial capitalism  * Paradox - contradic'n that can't be resolved Paradox 1  richer nation gets, ppl become more miserable (in terms of living condi'ns)  Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, London,1851  made of iron + glass, used modular construc'n  technological achievement --> BUT ppl living in miserable condi'ns  more developed + civilized nation was --> more into barbarity it went  more impressive the progress --> more spectacular the regression Paradox 2  capital + labour central in modern metropolis --> denser settlement --> more isolated individual became  more ppl around you, lonelier you get  individuals became monads, ruled by law of money  more congested (denser) metropolis is --> more miserably ppl live (more destitu'n, prostitu'n, child labour, etc.) Other theorists  one geologist: modern metropolis = liberating (provided anon. environ. free from prevalence of small town)  BUT social rela'ns becoming anon. --> social rela'ns w/ other humans = reduced to passing familiarity  ex: discomfort of public transporta'n  one theorist: metropolis = where intensifica'n of nervous stimuli results from uninterrupted change of outer + inner stimuli  psychological condi'n --> shock = norm in metropolis  city dweller must shield themself from stimula'n of metropolis by developing Blasé attitude  Daumier, The Omnibus, watercolour, 1864  anonymity + individuality in metropolis  Blasé attitude - attitude of apathy/indifference  Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873  NB - spatial conseq's of new economic + social order: how space effects new metropolis; how ARC participated in crea'n of new spatial order  new freedom in metropolis in new big city, BUT each individual reduced to speck of paint  bourgeoisie: money aristocracy Engels  * Segregated space  in metropolis  segregated space --> working ppl's quarters segregated from sec'ns of city reserved for middle class  destitu'n in metropolis hidden from bourgeoisie  strategy: things masked --> all misery lay behind main ave's of city  façade of city = masks (look nice outside)  masked hidden space --> result of industrial capitalism  buildings = built: life of building ends when it's financially untenable  * Hierarchical space - poorer one = farther away from main streets where they're living Paradox 3  rent = unearned increments + problematic (in 19 C) --> must be eradicated  more ppl settle on land, land becomes more valuable  question of housing = closely related to question of metropolis  accumula'n of wealth from capitalism, but emergence of proletariat, waste, labour, poverty, prostitu'n, terrible social condi'ns  Marx + Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848  Engels wrote abt Manchester in 1845 Solution: Modernized City - Haussmannization of Paris  Robert Owen, Plan of a Self-Supporting Home Colony, 1841  modern world w/ open spaces, old world w/ crumbling streets --> dichotomy in understanding metropolis  complex situated outside city  desire to eliminate ills of modern metropolis by moving out of metropolis  land = cheaper outside city --> colonize countryside  complex w/ public buildings connected to housing + huge open spaces in middle  themes imp. in way modern ARC could think of metropolis in 20 C:  1) industrial city can be tamed by imposing form upon it - ie., where  metropolis = formless --> impose form --> reform metropolis  2) emergence of open space as a paradigm in architectural modernity  to eliminate ills of streets --> get rid of streets + replace w/ open spaces  3) dichotomy created outside + center of city  utopia projects always trying to colonize countryside instead of building in center of city Paradox 4  scheme of ideal city, but can turn into prison-like city  Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873 --> Paris  Haussmanniza'n (realized by engineer Haussmann) th  revolu'ns for France: entire 19 C --> 1830, 1848, 1870  threat of massive rioting in city  Paris, Map by Lenoir, 1285-1314; Paris, 1575  Paris had fortifica'n walls around it, like other European cities  other European cities got rid of fortifica'n walls  * Haussmannization of Paris, 1853-1870  king asked Haussmann to modernize city  cut ave's + replace them w/ large treeline modern boulevards --> to realize military interven'n in case of rioting  improve traffic • circula'n, flow = imp in modernity  integrate railroads into city  intro open spaces into city  prevent possible barricading in city  * Haussmannization of Paris, 1853-1870  bought private prop to realize network of large boulevards  regula'n of buildings = passed  height of buildings, angle of roofs, incline, materials to be used, etc.  streets have uniform look
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