ARC132 - Lecture 5

11 Pages

Architecture Studies
Course Code
Zeynep Celik

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 11 pages of the document.
Lecture 5 - Mark Lewis, Cold Morning, 2009 o TD Centre, 54 floor of one of towers designed by Mies van der Rohe nd Architecture as Technology I: Tectonics  2 module (formal qualities of ARC  aesthetics: how things look/how architects want them to look) - Issues of technology in ARC o Technology – use of tools and techniques to solve practical prob  Technology has ongoing history - * Tectonic  technology in ARC  building’s response to gravity o 1) Geology – relating to structure of earth’s crust + large-scale processes taking place w/in it o 2) (for ARC) relating to building/construction  Origin mid 17 C (in sense 2) – via late Latin from Greek tektonikos, from tektn ‘carpenter, builder’ o Frampton – tectonics = “art of joining” o How does building stand up? (how it relays loads on it members to the ground) o How does building come together? (how elements of structure come together to transfer load into ground) o What is its structural logic?  How does building relay its load to ground?  “…” come together to transfer its load to ground? (its elements) - * Mies van der Rohe, Dominion Centre, Toronto, 1967-69 o One of last buildings Mies designed o Largest Mies project in world + one of most imp ex’s of his work o Mies = 3 director of Bauhaus - * Mies van der Rohe, Glass Skyscraper, Berlin 1922 o Existed in discourse before existed in reality o NB – Germany didn’t have technology during this time (1920s) to build skyscrapers o Mies – interested in exploring high-rise buildings, despite lack in availability of technology to construct them - * Mies van der Rohe, Dominion Centre, Toronto, 1967-69 o Designed IIT campus (master plan + building) o Mies in America influenced designs + construction of high-rise buildings o TD building commissioned in 1962 o Mies didn’t let go of idea of Pavilion (ex the banking Pavilion) o Old TD building taken down after new TD centre = completed o Material – steel, black aluminum, gray granite, marble, etc  Limited palette of materials o Mies ARC = minimalist (on occasion) o Structure = steel frame, dealing w/ bays o Desire of Mies + modernist buildings – make structure of building clear + legible  no mistaking it  Buildings: skeletons = made apparent to viewer  simple + rational structure (understand it easily)  symmetry + flat, regular, abstract geometry of buildings (like TD) = associated w/ rational thinking (in ARC discourse) • More rectilinear + more orthogonal plan = more rational structure appears o Structural scheme of TD – grid o Structure @ TD Centre (+ IIT building) = clear + legible  Universal space: • Transparency of structure seen in modern ARC • Also desire to make structure “disappear” o Grid logic found everywhere  everything in building conforms to grid  Ex: Universal Space, Mies van der Rohe, Convention Centre, Chicago, 1953 • Interior not cluttered w/ any vertical element • Space = central concern of modernist architects  NB – concept in modernism  Durand – intro’d grid as conformational tool  Grid logic = recurring theme in modernism • Grid = rational tool for modern ARC (1920s + 1930s) o Elevation – viewing building from distance + see how its façade looks o TD centre + modern ARC in general – concerned w/ making its structure visible + legible - * Mies van der Rohe, Seagram Building, New York City, 1958 - * Mies van der Rohe, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1962 – 68 o Visible, clear, universal, rational - * Mies van der Rohe, Dominion Centre, Toronto, 1967 – 69 o Details of Mies buildings – exterior looks simple (like skeletal grid)  BUT once look @ details  analysis becomes complex • Ex: expression of eyebeams in corners outside of TD structure - Norman Foster, “The Gherkin”, (30 St. Mary Axe), 2004 - Calatrava, Allen Lambert Galleria, Toronto, 1992 o Use of older materials + older techniques - * Parthenon, Athens, 447 – 432 BCE o Old buildings have sophisticated technology o Greek temples look simple - * Post and Lintel Construction o Transfer load of horizontal elements to vertical elements o Horizontal elements resting on vertical elements - Entasis – from Greek verb enteinein, which contains the idea of tension the convex curve given to a column, spire or similar upright member o Describes slight curvature found in columns of Greek temples o Found in every element of Greek temple - Element of desire to make ARC experience diff o Project own body to Greek temple  column feels like body o Buildings juxtaposed w/ Greek sculpture – similar type of tilting of column in Greek temple - Every component of Greek temple = diff o Elements look identical  reality: only 4 of every element - Standardization – invention of mass customization o Can customize something after it’s made (in large #’s) - Greek temple = technologically advanced - Grooves = glutes – make drums of columns look more uniform - Roman arches o Curved element o Arches existed before Romans  Romans took arches + used them in basements to absorb lateral thrust - * Construction w/ arches, vaults + domes (look at slides) o Same structural concept of arches for vaults + domes o Absorbing lateral thrusts - Solutions for supporting structure (absorbing lateral thrust) o Pantheon, Rome, 2 century AD  Only fraction of load from ceiling  roof = coming down on vertical elements o Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 6 century AD  More elaborate means for support - * Cathedral of Amiens, 1220 – 1269 o * Ribbed vaulting (structural innovation in gothica cathedrals)  Skeletal structures  role in process of construction  used as scaffolding for instill (?) in btwn ribs  Pointed arches – load goes down w/o creating as much lateral thrust  Can play w/ geometry of pointed arches o * Flying Buttresses (in gothica cathedrals)  Take load going off to side in form of skeletal structures outside of cathedral  inside of cathedral becomes more spacious - * Marc Antoine Laugier, frontispiece of the second edition of Essai sur l’architecture, 1755 (image), (original book 1753) o Muse of ARC leaning against elaborate architectural materials + pointing to structure that came out of woods  structure looks like Greek temple o Logic of enlightenment (intelligent movement started in 18 C) – all extravagance of Baroque, etc needs to be put a
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.