ARC132 - Lecture 5

11 Pages
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Department
Architecture Studies
Course Code
ARC132H1
Professor
Zeynep Celik

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Lecture 5 - Mark Lewis, Cold Morning, 2009 o TD Centre, 54 floor of one of towers designed by Mies van der Rohe nd Architecture as Technology I: Tectonics  2 module (formal qualities of ARC  aesthetics: how things look/how architects want them to look) - Issues of technology in ARC o Technology – use of tools and techniques to solve practical prob  Technology has ongoing history - * Tectonic  technology in ARC  building’s response to gravity o 1) Geology – relating to structure of earth’s crust + large-scale processes taking place w/in it o 2) (for ARC) relating to building/construction  Origin mid 17 C (in sense 2) – via late Latin from Greek tektonikos, from tektn ‘carpenter, builder’ o Frampton – tectonics = “art of joining” o How does building stand up? (how it relays loads on it members to the ground) o How does building come together? (how elements of structure come together to transfer load into ground) o What is its structural logic?  How does building relay its load to ground?  “…” come together to transfer its load to ground? (its elements) - * Mies van der Rohe, Dominion Centre, Toronto, 1967-69 o One of last buildings Mies designed o Largest Mies project in world + one of most imp ex’s of his work o Mies = 3 director of Bauhaus - * Mies van der Rohe, Glass Skyscraper, Berlin 1922 o Existed in discourse before existed in reality o NB – Germany didn’t have technology during this time (1920s) to build skyscrapers o Mies – interested in exploring high-rise buildings, despite lack in availability of technology to construct them - * Mies van der Rohe, Dominion Centre, Toronto, 1967-69 o Designed IIT campus (master plan + building) o Mies in America influenced designs + construction of high-rise buildings o TD building commissioned in 1962 o Mies didn’t let go of idea of Pavilion (ex the banking Pavilion) o Old TD building taken down after new TD centre = completed o Material – steel, black aluminum, gray granite, marble, etc  Limited palette of materials o Mies ARC = minimalist (on occasion) o Structure = steel frame, dealing w/ bays o Desire of Mies + modernist buildings – make structure of building clear + legible  no mistaking it  Buildings: skeletons = made apparent to viewer  simple + rational structure (understand it easily)  symmetry + flat, regular, abstract geometry of buildings (like TD) = associated w/ rational thinking (in ARC discourse) • More rectilinear + more orthogonal plan = more rational structure appears o Structural scheme of TD – grid o Structure @ TD Centre (+ IIT building) = clear + legible  Universal space: • Transparency of structure seen in modern ARC • Also desire to make structure “disappear” o Grid logic found everywhere  everything in building conforms to grid  Ex: Universal Space, Mies van der Rohe, Convention Centre, Chicago, 1953 • Interior not cluttered w/ any vertical element • Space = central concern of modernist architects  NB – concept in modernism  Durand – intro’d grid as conformational tool  Grid logic = recurring theme in modernism • Grid = rational tool for modern ARC (1920s + 1930s) o Elevation – viewing building from distance + see how its façade looks o TD centre + modern ARC in general – concerned w/ making its structure visible + legible - * Mies van der Rohe, Seagram Building, New York City, 1958 - * Mies van der Rohe, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1962 – 68 o Visible, clear, universal, rational - * Mies van der Rohe, Dominion Centre, Toronto, 1967 – 69 o Details of Mies buildings – exterior looks simple (like skeletal grid)  BUT once look @ details  analysis becomes complex • Ex: expression of eyebeams in corners outside of TD structure - Norman Foster, “The Gherkin”, (30 St. Mary Axe), 2004 - Calatrava, Allen Lambert Galleria, Toronto, 1992 o Use of older materials + older techniques - * Parthenon, Athens, 447 – 432 BCE o Old buildings have sophisticated technology o Greek temples look simple - * Post and Lintel Construction o Transfer load of horizontal elements to vertical elements o Horizontal elements resting on vertical elements - Entasis – from Greek verb enteinein, which contains the idea of tension the convex curve given to a column, spire or similar upright member o Describes slight curvature found in columns of Greek temples o Found in every element of Greek temple - Element of desire to make ARC experience diff o Project own body to Greek temple  column feels like body o Buildings juxtaposed w/ Greek sculpture – similar type of tilting of column in Greek temple - Every component of Greek temple = diff o Elements look identical  reality: only 4 of every element - Standardization – invention of mass customization o Can customize something after it’s made (in large #’s) - Greek temple = technologically advanced - Grooves = glutes – make drums of columns look more uniform - Roman arches o Curved element o Arches existed before Romans  Romans took arches + used them in basements to absorb lateral thrust - * Construction w/ arches, vaults + domes (look at slides) o Same structural concept of arches for vaults + domes o Absorbing lateral thrusts - Solutions for supporting structure (absorbing lateral thrust) o Pantheon, Rome, 2 century AD  Only fraction of load from ceiling  roof = coming down on vertical elements o Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 6 century AD  More elaborate means for support - * Cathedral of Amiens, 1220 – 1269 o * Ribbed vaulting (structural innovation in gothica cathedrals)  Skeletal structures  role in process of construction  used as scaffolding for instill (?) in btwn ribs  Pointed arches – load goes down w/o creating as much lateral thrust  Can play w/ geometry of pointed arches o * Flying Buttresses (in gothica cathedrals)  Take load going off to side in form of skeletal structures outside of cathedral  inside of cathedral becomes more spacious - * Marc Antoine Laugier, frontispiece of the second edition of Essai sur l’architecture, 1755 (image), (original book 1753) o Muse of ARC leaning against elaborate architectural materials + pointing to structure that came out of woods  structure looks like Greek temple o Logic of enlightenment (intelligent movement started in 18 C) – all extravagance of Baroque, etc needs to be put a
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