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Lecture 6

ARC132 - Lecture 6

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University of Toronto St. George
Architecture Studies
Zeynep Celik

Lecture 6 – Architecture as Species II: Transparency  space as a concept existed in late 19 C  discussed by architects – the void, air, instead of walls + windows, etc that make space  displaced thought on orders, proportions, harmony  NB – tectonics <=> “structure”  transparency --> modern ARC: all about glass  claims that modern ARC = without ornaments --> modern ARC = elimination of ornaments  claims made by representatives of modern movement – ornaments aren't used anymore (claims made in 1920s, 30s, 40s)  Giedion (secretary of CIAM) + Colin Rowe (influential in America after war) --> influential figures in modern movement  Recall: discussion of tectonics  * Mies van der Rohe, Dominion Centre, Toronto, 1967-69  despite simplicity --> building conforms to grid structure --> building = complexity  ARC of modern movement claims that it = always about visibility, legibility, self-evidence about Mies buildings --> were transparent in literal + figurative sense  Mies, IIT Crown Hall, Chicago, USA, 1956 --> model conforms to orthogonal logic --> what you see = what you get  despite legibility + visibility of structural system of Mies buildings --> structure itself = hidden  * Mies van der Rohe, Seagram Building, New York City, 1958  Mies buildings --> structure = hidden − ex: eyebeam - @ facades of building to make structure appearance  structure = hidden inside column  * Tectonics - strange tension in modern movement between:  How does a building stand up? Vs. How does a building APPEAR to stand up?  How does it come together? Vs. How does it APPEAR to come together?  What is its structural logic? Vs. How does it EXPRESS its structural logic?  ACTUAL structure – APPARENT structure  BEING – APPEARANCE  How structure IS – How structure APPEARS  modern architects still concerned with how things look  glass house  ideal transparency in modern ARC that forces inhabitants of ARC to moral rectitude  transparency not only about glass (although significant material) (in modern ARC) − also about legibility, clarity, visibility, implications of moral truthfulness − enforces inhabitants to adapt certain behaviours  *SANAA (Japanese firm), Glass Pavilion, Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio, USA, 2006  involves collection of glass objects  Toledo – once important centre of glass manufacture  building = very transparent  literally glass box situated in park beside 19 C Beaux-Arts style museum (Pavilion of museum) and houses  built to house 5000 glass artifacts  plan of building (walls = thin + looks like bubble diagram): − has no thickness --> only simple line  glass walls represented as thin lines − looks like bubble diagram  corners of space = rounded  logic: orthogonal (can tell where columns are)  spaces in rooms (making up plan) conform + depart from orthogonal logic  circulation = snake-like  workshops where glass = manufactured on site − plan determined by program --> program – what = supposed to take place in building  program of building  * Poche – The method or result of representing the solid part of a building (as a wall, etc.) by a darkened area on an architectural plan − white spaces of building of where to occupy; distinction between interior + exterior spaces  elaborate pattern of poche in building − poche: found in void in panels of glass  * Philip Johnson, Glass House, New Canaan, CT, 1949  clear distinction between what's exterior + interior space  poche logic = inverted  volume has envelope of glass around it − only solid mass: toilet  Toledo museum ~ Beaux-Arts poche, where deep pockets between occupiable spaces = void (not solid)  glass box: volume = always enveloped with surface of glass  NB:  interior vs. exterior  solid vs. void  transparency vs. opaque  *SANAA (Japanese firm), Glass Pavilion, Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio, USA, 2006  placement of glass boxes inside large glass boxes − technical explanation:  layers of glass walls provide elaborate heating + cooling system  building has 3 zones:  hot zone – glass = manufactured --> heat recovered = used elsewhere  gallery – specific temperatures for artifacts --> cool air from galleries = recovered --> used to cool glass production zone  buffer zones (between different layers of glass panels) = thermal --> heated + cooled to avoid condensation on panels  material (glass movement): Germany --> China --> USA  2 curved pieces of glass --> thermal void between them  curtains: monitor + control amount of light entering building  sections – slicing building --> like x-ray  elevation – how you view faces of building from a distance  architects interested in exploring sections − observe how spaces work  *SANAA (Japanese firm), Glass Pavilion, Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio, USA, 2006  * Sejima – effort to make glass transparent, yet architects seek to find effects that make it opaque; illusions and reflections created by way glass panels are laid; architects seeking to create phantom effects (ex. Reflections of curtains on curved glasses)  transparency undermines its own logic + be opaque  * Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, London, 1851  earliest uses of caste iron skeletal construction − facade covered by glass panels  intro'd way of using modules --> open system – can be extended in any direction − many materials made off site + assembled on site (using techniques akin to assembly line) − new typology  engineer built Crystal Palace  * Charles Garnier, New Opera, Paris, 1863 – 1875 and * Gallery of Machines, Built for the Paris Exhibition of 1889  19 C structures = too atectonic + ornamental (selon Giedion)  * Sigfried Giedion, Space, Time, and Architecture, 1941  Transparency – to see interior and exterior of building @ same time  Modern ARC – space-time  “Movement in space that has been seized and held”  Elements of transparency  interior and exterior seen @ same time, simultaniety, interpenetration, interrelation, juxtaposition  Transparency about see-through material of glass and understanding of space − Not only material condition  also spatial condition  Gropius building = allowing viewer to see surface of building and what’s inside  * Colin Rowe and Robert Slutzky – Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal i. Rowe + Slutzky – essay = critique of Giedion  Start definition with transparency based on simultaneity, interpenetration  then object definition  NB – Giedion = interested in clarity, visibility, self-evidence of transparency  Rowe + Slutzky interested in its contradiction  Transparcency implies broader spatial order  Space recedes + fluctuates  continues in
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