ARC132 - Lecture 3

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University of Toronto St. George
Architecture Studies
Zeynep Celik

Lecture 3 - Histories of the Present III: Media and Architecture  * Media  1) channel/sys of communica'n  media = extens'n of man  2) after mass media. Newspapers, radio, tv, etc., collectively, as vehicles of mass communica'n  historians - mass media = imp marker for modernity  enlightenment = emergence of public's sphere  virtual space of exchanging ideas in newspapers, notes, tv, radio  NB - beginning of our modernity  Colomnia = imp theorist of rela'nship btwn ARC + media  Thomas Demand, Bathroom, 1997  sculpture + photographer  takes images (crime scenes, iconic images of interiors) circulating in mass media --> constructed from scratch (using cardboard) model of scene (ex bathroom) + took photographs of crime scene (minus evidences of crime)  destroyed mockups (model of crime scene) --> photographs = published (in magazines, books)  images of ARC return to origin --> mass media  Colomnia: architects work in time-consuming way  Demand works @ rate of architect (i.e., slow)  Colomnia: Demand understands how ARC works  modern ARC belongs to mass media --> ARC = form of mass media  Colomnia  modern ARC = form of media --> built as image in pg's of magazines + newspapers  architect sell products, but image = space carefully constructed by architect  sometimes romanticize 1 -hand experience of ARC  but freq'ly view/experience ARC thru mass media (ex Internet, magazines)  media --> medium: anything going btwn 2 things --> an intermediary  ARC = always mediated  buildings, landscapes, city log readings thru photography, films, tv, etc  tech's mediating ways in which we experience ARC  way we move in world impacts how we understand ARC  ex: panoramic view of nature, landscape from view of train  * Le Corbusier, Plan Voisin, 1925 --> Paris, France  Le Corbusier obsessed w/ airplanes + how things looked from above  Venturi, Scott-Brown, Izenour, Learning from Las Vegas, 1977  contemp city = city experienced during windshield of car  representa'n + making buried in images --> how things appear + made by architects  tech's (of photography film, tv, train, airplane, cars) change ways we perceive our built environ + change ways we make our built environ  therefore, build cities that = to be experienced in diff way  ARC in discipline = shorthand for many things: ARC stands for buildings, landscapes + cities  ARC also stands for discourse around ARC --> how we talk + think abt ARC  mass media plays crucial role in dissemina'n of ARC  experience w/ ARC ~ always mediated --> even when we think it's not  ex: Colomnia - even when in presence of building, visitors compare it to images of building in media  Colomnia: modern ARC = always abt mass media images  reproducibility of ARC --> images always been reproducible, but tech like woodcut + engraving made it possible  ex: reforma'n in Europe --> printing in large #'s  * Mies van der Rohe, Glass Skyscraper, Berlin, 1922  * Mies  German architect, became 3rd director of Bauhaus (1930-1933), immigrated to US after Nazis took over + became known for designing skyscraper (+ TD center in T.O)  Glass Skyscraper, Berlin, 1922  Germany didn't have tech to build high-rise buildings in 1920s  make model --> photographs it --> montages it around existing buildings in Berlin --> media construc'n --> presents it  19 C - modern newspaper = product of lithography  photography = not produced in newspapers  lithography - images could  NB - photography = early 19 C inven'n; film = inven'n in late 19 C  Colomnia:  modern ARC + mass media closely linked  great deal of staging in modern ARC  media construc'ns of ARC  * Le Corbusier, Villa Savoy, Poissy, 1928-30 th  French architect --> representative of modern movement in 20 C  presented Villa Savoy as if it = realized w/ latest tech in ARC --> reality: it = conven'nal tech's muse in contruc'n --> presented Villa as machine for living by virtue of photographs  staging photograph to represent something that = not exist  no end to cycle of circula'n of images  Bernard Tschumi, Advertisements for Architecture, 1976  took photographs of Villa Savoy + circulated them --> made postcards out of them  Le Corbusier, Towards an Architecture, 1923  Le Corbusier - worked w/ images --> collected them --> composed books using images  therefore, modern architects aware of importance of image reproduc'n in modernity  Peter and Alison Smithson, House of the Future, Homes Exhibition, London, 1956  Smithsons opposed modern movement in 1950s + 1960s  what they presented in projects as most advanced tech in plastic = plywood + paint  * Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona Pavillion, Barcelona, 1929  Pavillion existed briefly --> not visited so much + not published so much in 1929 --> dismantled after  Pavillion existed only in images --> circulated in magazines + books --> displayed in exhibs--> Pavillion reconstructed in 1980s  therefore, ARC another form of mass media  modern architect --> manipulate images  stage spaces + images  rela'nship btwn representa'n + making (images + ARC) = complicated  ex: photo monatge of Mies' Glass Skyscraper stimulates real building  Ray and Charles Eames, Case Study House #8, California, 1949  Eames' = American architects + designers  image of architect (him/herself) becomes part of manipula'n  representa'n of architects in their own images (part of image manipula'n)  Eames experimented w/ diff media --> also made films --> ideas in ARC can be transported thru film  film: Powers of 10, 1968 (did for IBM)  thru act of manipulating images, Eames made larger claim abt scope of design • ARC designers can design anything, ranging from micro to macro scales  Eames and Smithsons  concerned w/ exhibs (1960s)  Ray and Charles Eames, "Glimpses of the USA", US exhibit in Moscow, Multi-screen presentation, in geodesic dome theater by Buckminster Fuller, 1959  1959 exhib'n in Moscow (in height of Cold War) --> multi-screen exhib  Alison and Peter Smithson, Nigel Henderson and Eduardo Paolozzi, Parallel of Life and Art, 1953, London  moderniza'n + modernism --> modernity --> Lecture 2 --> condi'ns of industrial capitaliza'n --> Manchester: urbaniza'n, new social + economic order --> new arrangement of spaces (rise of metropolis)  modernity: condi'ns created from processes of moderniza'n  modernism = response in art + ARC to condi'ns of moderniza'n  modernity - describing condi'ns of industrial capitalism, urbaniza'n, moderniza'n  modernism - in arts and ARC  modern, post-modern, contemporary can be conceptualized  ARC-related exhibs displayed @ Museum of Modern Arts (MoMA) since 1932  MoMA = indicator of what's going on in architectural discourses  1932: Modern ARC exhib  1975: Beaux-Arts exhib  1988: Deconstructivism  1995: Lights Construc'n  MoMA interested in social issues  ex: foreclosure + housing prices in US  Alfred Barr, Cubism and Abstract Art, 1936  1929: MoMA founded as private institu'n by Rockerfeller --> right after 1929 market crash st  Alfred Barr = 1 director  bougt Picassos + Gauguins  MoMA diff from other museums  collected art + tried to determine course of contemporary art  Barr - outlined genealogy of how art came to be --> modern ARC + Bauhaus = imp roles in genealogy  decides what = going to matter + not matter in history  decides what art = going to be cannonical + not cannonical (cannonizing --> church- related term in ARC) 
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