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Lecture 2

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Architecture Studies
Zeynep Celik

3Contemporary Architecture thJanuary 17 2013 Histories of the Present 2 Metropolis and ArchitectureClip from movie Metropolis 1927 theoretically set in 2026 We see two parts skyscrapers planes latest infrastructure Also featured pictures from some magazine scifi for the future Plot of film resolves around son of master of metropolis and his love interest from the underworldThe metropolis in the modern imagination appears as a utopia and dystopiaThe world modern think about the start of a global world Which is not really a recent phenomenon Emergence of capitalismIndustrial capitalism fed by commerce mechanized agriculture and industrial processAgricultural revolution emerged at the same time as industrial revolution This was because of the mechanization of both A new way of understanding the world also occurredEnlightenment Liberty freedom and autonomy were emphasized French revolutionTransformations of society occurred because of the accumulation of capital through these things also colonialism This started in England and spread to other parts of Europe A rise of a new social classBourgeoise They came increasingly more powerful The creation of Proletariat class People who sold their labour Division of labourwhen machines are used and any person working on them is given a single specific task Work comes to be called labour worker called labourerSocial classes are separated and inequality is noticeable The labourer is alienated from the work he does Alienation of labourEnlightenment talks of more liberty equality freedom but division of labour etc negates and opposes those changesModernity is a compilation of paradoxes Spacial consequence of modernity population displacement to urban centres Growth of population in centres also brings shift of capitalMetropolis big city Urbanism study of cities the way people live in cities and how cities are builtthought aboutIndustrial cities were problems and how they were solvedEngels and the Condition of the Working Classes in England 1845 Child labour prostitution exploitation poor livingworking conditions Industrial capitalism produces a number of paradoxes The view was that freedom was free economy but if unregulated it will implode More impressive the progress more spectacular the regression More packed people are in a place the more isolated they become Modern city was liberating because it provided anonymity and freedom from surveillance This meant relationships and interactions with people become anonymousDiscomfort of public transportation First time in history where you were forced to sit and face strangers Public space of modernity where individuals learned to advert their gazes Experience of metropolis was an uninterrupted stream of nervous stimuli They also learned to develop a mechanism called blase attitude Indifference to protect oneself from the shocks of modernityEngels also talked about how space was arranged in the modern metropolis It was marked by segregation from wealthy and poor private and public spheres of live men and women work and leisureMasking in metropolis Main thoroughfares had to be made pretty for the bourgeoise to pass through The housing for the proletariats had to be masked from the repulsive buildings they were Buildings made more cheaply not in order to last but save money A buildings life does not end when it becomes physically unstable but when it becomes financially unstableMay seem like progress but think of slums poverty rent segregation etcProblem Metropolis of Industrial Capitalism Solution To Modernize the MetropolisHaussmannization of Paris cuts boulevards into the irregularity of the citys streets and layout To block future barricades help with traffic flow and allow for trains etc Regulations were applied to buildings so streets would have a uniform look Public gardens and parks were added Sewer system was improved street furniture was improved and gas lamps on the street were added Idea of hygeine was used when planning This was not received well as it meant the city was in ruins for decades during the reconstructionCities were as much shaped by destruction as constructionBefore Haussmannization different social classes could live near each other Not after Working classes also left the city during this time and the social structure was changed This displaced 350 000 people from centre of city More bourgeoise moved to the city Conspicuous consumption of goodsAs a result of the physical changes social changes occurred The activities changed and watching and being watched occurred Vienna Ringstrasse Sitte WagnerFortified walls around a city were surrounded by open space These walls were later torn down and the Ringstrasse was introduced This meant that the land had to be developed Open spaces remained as the city was an irregular shape and had to be filled with these spaces even if they were alienatingSitte The ringstrasse and irregular shapes cause agoraphobia Interested by selfinclosed public spaces found in Italy This was his solution to the modernization attempts and the nondescript public spacesWagner Architecture as utilitarian rational but not functional Criticizes Ringstrasse because it was not instrumental rational modern enough Historical architecture the enemy of modern architecture and called it a stylistic hangoverWon a competition of annexing the cityAlso designed a lot of infrastructure bridges train stations tunnels He used exposed iron in many of his designs Wrote a book Die Grossstadt He wanted to generate additional rings around the city and cut through these rings The bits of land you are left with are developed as modules They were for 150 000 people and were to be basically a selfinclosed place to live Apartment buildings would be uniform and
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