ARH312 Week 1.docx

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Geoffrey Mac Donald

ARH312 Week 1- September 13 th Drennan – Statistics for Archaeologists (can be found at Robarts and online) Fletcher and Lock- Digging Numbers: Elementary Stats for Archaeologists (found at Robarts) Free Statistical program called PAST The t-test assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other. This analysis is appropriate whenever you want to compare the means of two groups, and especially appropriate as the analysis for the posttest-only two-group randomized experimental design. The formula for the t-test is a ratio. The top part of the ratio is just the difference between the two means or averages. The bottom part is a measure of the variability or dispersion of the scores. Chi-square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed data with data we would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. The formula for calculating chi-square ( 2) is: 2= (o-e) /e That is, chi-square is the sum of the squared difference between observed (o) and the expected (e) data (or the deviation, d), divided by the expected data in all possible categories. For example, suppose that a cross between two pea plants yields a population of 880 plants, 639 with green seeds and 241 with yellow seeds. You are asked to propose the genotypes of the parents. Your hypothesis is that the allele for green is dominant to the allele for yellow and that the parent plants were both heterozygous for this trait. If your hypothesis is true, then the predicted ratio of offspring from this cross would be 3:1 (based on Mendel's laws) as predicted from the results of the Punnett square (Figure B. 1). How to write labs: 1. Intro to the problem 2. State the hypothesis 3. Materials 4. Methods 5. Answers to the questions in the assignment (numbered) 6. Discussions Health and Safety  Material Data Safety Sheets (MDSS) Hygiene  Hygiene is a basic aspect of lab safety  Artifacts are dirty, and could host bacteria molds and fungi  Wear gloves for protections and wash hands frequently Eye Protections  Several activities require eye protection (goggles)  Artifact cleaning, preparation, chemical work Respiratory Protection  Dust particles and airborne fungi and molds  Some chemicals exude fumes that are dangerous use a fume hood Cuts and Burns  Wear protectiv
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