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ARH312 2nd Sem Lecture 1-3

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NDARH312 2 SEMESTERLECTURE 13LITHIC MANUFACTUREFLINTKNAPPINGLITHIC ANALYSISUSEWEAR We learn a peopleso Cognitive abilities o Symbolic artifacts o Mobility patterns o Learning communities o Subsistence practices o Range of activities o Technological productionLithic manufacture understood througho Ethnoarchaeologyobserving people making stone tools o Experimental archaeologyreplicating stone tools to answer archaeological questions o Knapinsreplication for interest and hobbyPopular raw materials used for stone tool manufacture o Flintchert o Quartz o Quartziteo Basalto Obsidian volcanic glass o Even limestone marble etc o ChalcedonyOne of the principal limitations to lithic manufactureDifferent materials for different functionsLocal or importedAny sedimentary rock composed mainly of microcrystalline quartz can be considered chertApplications that require an extremely sharp edge or great control over fracture mechanicsobsidian brittle but can hold sharp edgesQuartzite for heavy toolsQuartz tools often small and irregular and holds a sharp edgecommon in places where finegrained cherts and obsidian are not availableBasalt for flaked tools Masons use flaking techniques to shape limestone for building materialVariation in trace elements in the material can tell us where they come from using xray fluorescence and other spectroscopic techniques The properties of raw materials are o Brittleo Conchoidal fractureInvolves a shock wave that radiates through the material from the point of impact in a conical fashionHertzian cone o Homogeneity o Colour Lithic manufacture a reductive technologyartifacts shaped by removing material from a core or a flake
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