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ARH312 2nd Sem Lecture 4

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NDARH 312 2 SEMESTERLECTURE 4ZOOARCHAEOLOGYTypes of faunal remains frequently found at archaeological sitesbones teeth fish otoliths ivory eggshell mollusk shellTypes of faunal remains NOT commonly foundkeratinbased materials horn sheath claw and hoof sheath hair fur cartilaginous parts insectsTaphonomythe laws of burialthe study of the detailed transitions of organics from the biosphere into the lithosphere o Purposes 1 understand the life history of a fossil 2 understand natural and cultural bias of a faunal assemblageWhy The faunal assemblage that we study in the present represents only a fraction of the animals that lived in the pastTaxonomy o Linnaean taxonomy classifies hierarchically based on evolutionary relationshipsKingdom phylum class order family genus species o Animals that are closely related tend to share more osteological characteristics with each other than with more distantly related animalsZooarchaeologists rely on o Indepth knowledge of comparative anatomy and basic understanding of evolutionary biomechanics o Access to reference skeletons of known provenance age sex etc to which we compare archaeological specimens Bone biologyo Long bone componentsDiaphysisshaftcortical bone dense compactEpiphysisendsspongy Metaphysisjunction between diaphysis and epiphysisplace where two fuse together o Long bone shafts are dense compact cortical bone with an outer periosteum ends are made of spongy cancellous bone
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