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fah377 lec 4.pdf

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Pam Wolff

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lec 4 midterm 3 slide identifications (7 min each): name of project, designer, client, audience, location, when designed, when built, what kind of image, when taken, why this image in particular important to understanding the project 2 slide comparisons, identify as above, explain how these compared shed light on each other 1 long essay (50 min) discuss specific projects in relation to each other and to themes of course, use specific examples from lectures, readings, image study what are significant characteristics how each project reflects broad cultural values, trajectory of project in time; how it is described/ discussed in this image rm1074 3-4:30 friday tues morning 10-12 field trip and term paper humber valley, rosedale ravine, leslie st spit how being in the landscape changes (informs the way you understand) your interpretation of written discussion of landscapes review relationship between landscape and infrastructure in 19th century cities, expansion of urban park into fabric of organization 1. riverside illinois, Olmstead and Vaux’s conception of suburb as intermediary between city and countryside; the streets as central figure for organizing domestic landscape; reflecting geometry of Deplane river, draining strategies for right of way; landscape zoning 2. emerald necklace, circuit of drainage way, pathways, public spaces that the project wove throughout the city; designed to handle basic infrastructural processes 3. Charles Eliot’s work for Metropolitan District commission; physical location of Boston basin, land to be held in public trust, arrangement of public places held in trust an armature to guide future developments; tail end of emerald necklace; scale of Eliot’s project is much bigger than that which Olmstead was working; to think about the scope of work extending 15 miles from Massachusetts shoreline: that it is possible to plan in advance where development will go rather than having to react (antidotal) Olmstead’s work in Riverway, Fenway: degree of radical reconstruction of what had been horrible waterways into lush scenic streams; in comparing before/after images, note degree of transformation, sophistication of engineering, camouflage of infrastructural function of drainage into picturesque scenery; insertion of this kind of scenery in his work is not meant to be an anti-urban argument but rather proposes that rusticity is necessary, important tenet in urban organization Eliot’s work with trustees of public preservation: public preservation and access; significant projects as a writer: ‘The Waverley Oaks’ in Belmont at edge of Boston; argues that natural monuments, heritage landscapes as important as museums, cultural artifacts; public treasures; the essay and Eliot’s general power as advocate led to formation of ‘trustees for public reservations’, an organization first of its kind in NA, Western Europe; unique in its establishment of an agency that is not a locality for the administration of public land established second group, metropolitan parks commission; recall Eliot’s discussion of ecology of Boston basin, the way it tracks on the map, rock hills, glacial rubbish forming plain, fresh river waters running down through hills and plain, and the sea itself as important natural resource for the public; after this cogent exposition of the landscape, he identifies available sites that would allow public access and forestall homogeneous development in Boston basin illustration in ‘the uses of the axe’ by Eliot a before and after pairing that relies on selective editing rather than radical reconstruction; recall Downing’s position that the job of LA in NA is the enhancement of central character of these incredible landscapes (recall Yosemite, Niagara, Mount Royal: geared not to the remaking but the revealing of their qualities): Eliot’s work belongs in this rubric removal of trees in this notch suddenly reveals the valley and sea beyond; makes the structure of the landscape visible and apparent (these images, the editing achieving the same effect as the words in his essay); direct and immediate comparison yet apparent modesty of the technique underplays, softens the ambition of his proposal (which is elucidation of landscape in large scale) : different ways of working, different rhetorical strategies from a condition we know now into one that design will produce Eliot’s is very different from the plates produced by Olmstead and Vaux for Central Park images from Humphrey Repton, 18th century Britain; used same strategy as Eliot, early version of pop-up book “the Red Book”: selective thinning of trees suddenly reveals landscape beyond foreground ENGLISH TRADITION OF LANDSCAPE GARDENING: one that values the sublime but is focused on producing picturesque, beautiful; filtering traditions of landscape painting and photography from transcendentalist philosophy (Eliot) transformation of ideas about the land codings show that Olmstead’s projects belong to local authority while Eliot’s belong to Metropolitan Commission public ownership of land to guarantee future of these areas of land (Eliot is working after Olmstead, after he has seen the antidotes necessitated in Olmstead’s projects) public plan for public land oriented around the centre of public administration, institutions • the turn of the 20th century and the power of cultural history maturation of culture in US and Canada begins to suggest other sources in vocabulary in design of spaces, landscapes: the places that had been colonies begin to accumulate wealth, develop characteristics of nations; confederation, railway (Canada); full colonization of national territory (lower 48 states), full inhabitation of these areas, emergence of American empire with Spanish- American war (Philippines, Puerto Rico); arguments about the landscape start to made not only about natural history but in terms of cultural history (how these are cited, argued for, profoundly transformed) 2 kinds of sources of ideas for appropriate forms in NA landscapes: • Beaver Brook: site of Waverley Oaks; translated and brought into cities either by engineering or editing • Alphonse Alfonde: street view of Paris (recall Napoleon III and Hausmann, great boulevards cut through working class areas, partly to put down incipient rebels, to ease military transport, housing and amenities for upper middle classes) these are the kinds of images that are cited as appropriate models for NA development ---> shift from an interest in rustic landscape to great european cities as model: • Chicago: Columbian Exposition (World’s Fair) 1873 400th anniversary of Columbus’ journey to new world; assertion of American power and authority; a showpiece for emerging industrial power of US, of corporations, accumulation of great wealth: a theatre to suggest what a NA city could be island contained by geometrically ordered courts and lanes, organized along classical planning principles, bearing the look of quite the opposite of Olmstead and Eliot’s works architects: John Root, Daniel Burnham work involved layout of grounds, commissioning of fair buildings; Burnham took control (vocabulary, materials, colour schemes, construction) after Root’s death; opened a year late: buildings not made of material but staff (pseudo): dazzling white classical spectacle at an enormous scale; produced tremendous amount of excitement (20 million visitors); short-lived buildings (generally true of world expositions), fantasy or sketch about what a city could look like: becoming the inspiration for permanent constructions in urban cities inspired influential writing by Charles Robinson from Rochester, the ‘city beautiful movement’: impressed by the fair’s impact on people, ‘the fair spectacle’ describing history of grounds and exposition, a series of articles for Atlantic Monthly beginning in late 1890s which he then parlayed into a series of articles for Harper’s, traveled to Europe to write about municipal improvement “....on the practical basis of civic...” beautification not as trivial matter bu
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