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Lecture 6

Lecture 6

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B Ewald

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Temple of deified Casear - first time a ruler was deified - From that time on they could be deified - The good emperors were; bad ones were condemned to be forgotten Consecratio - deification invovled erecting funeral pyre and burnign emepror in the campus martius Augustus buildng - aded coherence and unified appearance - Generally his building politics - Even that which is restored is characteristic of this - Not stictly symmetrical but mroe unified and dignified - Only then that the Roman Forum reeived an appearance that matched its importance (as ruler of Med) Space - taken up by buildings - Everyhing built from then on had to be squeexed into spaces that had been left over Temple of Deified Vespasion (and titus) on FOrum Romanum - has to do with the deifiecation of emperor - Squeeced between saturna dn concordia rd - Only 3 oclumns still standing, result of a restoration undertaken n the early 3 centuryAD by emperor Septimius Severus and son Caracalla - We know about this from the reamining parts of th einscription on theArchitrave (slides) - Original temple was dedicated in honor of two emperors: st - Vespasian and Titus, 1 centAD - Vespasian began colluseum - All his buulding projects financed by war booty - Dedicated by Domitian in 81AD - Statues of deified emperor and his son Titus - Ground plan: - Single cella with porch - Traditional italic design - The friezes were made of marble - rich entablature - Frieze with sacrifical insturments - Symblizes piety to the god (pietas) or praises piety of the emperors and their good relation with the gods Temple ofAntonius Pius and Faustina - deified his wife, who had died 20 year prv - Women are more important now - Has been transformed into a church - Built in corinthian order - Six on front - Deep porch - Four columns on side - Usual design with cella on high podium with frontal staircase - Altar integrated on staircase - as that was there the sacrifices took place (outside temple) - Columns are made of Green marble - Frieze is very generic, decoration of griffins, and animals, and vegetables, etc That space which was avalable was taken up by eperor sanctuaries Imperial Fora IMAGE: Green is old Forum ROmanum; blue is imperial fora Forum of Caesar - begining with Caesar emperors begin to build editions - All the same, stricly symetrical, same layout - Certain conservatism in th ebuilidng activity of the emepror in imperial period - The successor does not come up with something entirely original, perhaps on a larger scale - Always in a competitive relationship with their predecessors because they were emasured against them - Caesar’s forum completed byAugustus - Consists of two porticos which fram a square which on one of the small sides has a temple (dedicated tot he patro god of respective emperor, who has particular importance for a roman emperor) - In case of Caesar this was Venus Augustus’forum - mars ultor - Larger to Caesars - Framed by two porticos - But this time has hemicircles (hexidrae) parallel each other - May have had two pairs - Simliarity to caesar: harkening back to him on purpose, wants to connect - Temple allegedly vowed by augustus (octavian) in 42 BC on eve of batle of Philipae, in which he defeated assassins of Caesar - This is why the temple is dedicated to Mars Ultor - He had promised mars the temple if he helped him defeat his enemies - The return of legionary standards that had been lost by roman legions in the east were regained under augusts - Adiplomatic success - They were put on display in the forum - Propogandist purposes - On th eother hand provided space for a number of civic and religious activities - Second largest temple of the time - Righly decorated - White marbled from north italy from quarries opened by augusts - forum is irregular at th eback, so perhaps he could not purchase all the area (v
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