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B Ewald (11)

Lecture 5

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B Ewald

Forum Romanum • Temple of Saturn on the Forum Romanum, allegedly dedicated in 497 BC • The temple is oriented toward the meeting place, the comitium • How one would expect • Important place because thats where the people met - the reason for the Forum Romanum being where it is and an important step in urbanization • Earlier in 5-6th centuries there must have been shrines, but there is no real evidence of this • Temple damaged in a fire in later 3rd century CE • In later 4th century it was resorted with spolia • Only thing new were capitals, everything else reused • This restoration was recorded in an inscription on the architrave which says the SPQR had restored the temple • Older temple must have been incorporated into the podium, and somewhere in there must be the remains of the earlier temple • The first temple was built on the site of an altar (open air) • Saturn was a very old and indigenous latin agricultural divinity • Not an adopted god from the greeks • Name might mean something like “sewer” • He was identified with the growing of the crops and abundance, and also vine-growing • The feet of the statue were bound by wool-strips or bands meant to prevent saturn from leaving their territory • Statues were believed to be animated • These strips were removed only once a year in a festival in his honor (saturnalia) • Temples had a multiplicity of functions • Worship of saturn (for this example) • State treasure (where money, but also spoils of war from foreign conquests were kept) • Keeping the treasury was symbolic saying that it was public • Later in the 1st century CE the money stored there was much sought after • One of the roles that the temple plays is that people try and get it under their control - get the money that is there • The eastern side of the podium was used for public announcements (the holes for fixing the tablets are still visible) • Saturn is usually represented as veiled, carrying a knife or sickle • Cult of saturn was indigenous and local Dioscuri • The Dioscuri, built shortly after, beginning in in 496 BCE this temple was built in honor of Greek deities • Dioscuri are represented as heroes • Sons of Zeus and Leda, wife of Tenders (... You know this) • Etruscans had an equivalent for these gods • Name means “sons of jupiter” • The twins were inseparable and played an important role as role-models: • Of the roman knights (equites), the equestrian order the constituted the cavalry • They were examples of concord and harmony • The myth was used in variety of ways • Augustus identified Gaius and Lucius with the Dioscuri • They were believed to have appeared on the spot where their temple is • They magically appeared and helped the romans in a battle (496 BC) • Afterwards the came to the Forum Romanum, announced the victory to the romans • Roman honored them with the erection of their table • And honored the victory annually with a cavalry parade of 5,000 young men • 2 youths dressed up as the twins • Temple has a similar orientation as temple of Saturn • Oriented toward the Sacra via • Oriented to a site of great significance in early rome • Of the original temple • Wood, stone terra-cotta • Reconstructed on the basis of the hypothetical plan of the temple of jupiter on the capitoline • What remains of original terra-cotta figurines passed into their possession. Burried them (votive burial) • The temple we have today dates toAugustus and was only completed under Tiberius in the year 6 CE • Characterized by its use of white italic marble • Material comes from the marble quarries in Italy, opened underAugustus in lumi (ps?) • Prostyle temple, stands on a very high podium • Has a large frontal staircase used as a speakers platform (rostra) in front of the temple • The temple had secondary functions • Office of weight and measures and as a bank • Because the knights who controlled the temple were in charge of the mint. Would collect taxes too • Meetings for Roman senate • Met in variety of places, in particular temples from where they could make public announcements on the rostra • Dentist office in the podium Temple of Concord • Allegedly dedicated in 367/6 BCE • On occasion of the compromise achieved between social order • Struggled between Plebs an Patricians • Ends in this year by allowing the plebs to hold high offices as well - even the highest offices.Allowed full political participation • Expl
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