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FAH272 Lecture Notes Week 12 - April 1.docx

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Dr.Sharon Vattay

FAH272 April 1, 2013 – Lecture Notes International Style - As with any style, as soon as something becomes too mainstream you have people (the avante-garde) who try to turn against it and do something new - By the 40’s, 50’s, 60’s it was a very popular style Mies, Farmworth House, Piano, Illinois, 1950-1952 - Took concepts and reduced them to the major elements that he saw in the overall universal design - Lost some practicality in terms of livability but it was Mies’s concepts down to their very nature - Led to a building that people could live in, Lakeshore Drive apartment buildings Mies, Lakeshore Drive apartment buildings, Chicago, 1948-1951 - Concepts taken from the farmsworth house - Steel frame skyscraper with glazed curtain wall - One of the first residential buildings with a glazed curtain wall - Reduced plan to only the elements that were required (steel frame construction and glazing) - Plan is very similar to that of the farmsworth house - Site was very important, not a matter of the buildings being plonked down anywhere - Placed specifically according to each other and the street grid - Creates a connection to nature in the way that the farmsworth house had the flow from the inside to the outside of the house - Led to the Seagram building Seagram Building - Important how it is set on the site - You have a dark bold building set on a plaza - Part of the movement to bring back the office tower that was a complete slab from the ground to the top  In New York in the 1920s there was a zoning bylaw that required buildings as it got to a certain height it had to be stepped back and then go up and then set back again o Related to letting the sun penetrate down onto the street o This impacted architectural design o This was when art deco was coming in  In the late 1940’s architects began to take a stand against that bylaw that was impacting their overall designs o The architects realized that that setback began to change what they were designing o The United Nations Building is an example of this Harrison, Abramovitz and others, United Nations Headquarters, New York, 1947-1950 - Setbacks allowed them to fit zoning bylaws at the top - New geometry comes into play in these office buildings - Opened up the doors to these kind of designs with the slab towers SOM (Skidmore, Owings and Merrill Firm), Lever House, New York, 1951-1952 - Slab tower - Uses industrial materials in a very visible way - Each of the spans are stainless steel - Very mechanized building, speaks to the kind of industry at the time - Set on a podium (with a slab tower) o This idea is still used today - A lot of architects after this started to move away from international style and come up with something different (post world war 2 architecture) o They were all influenced by international style but started to look at alternatives Ponti with Pier Luigi Nervi, Perelli Tower, Milan, Italy, 1956-1960 - More design emphasis (after the war ended) - This is where they started to create buildings using all the modern materials and technology and applying it in a very specific way to their own concepts - This led to a highs standard of design for Italy - This made a statement because its not your single slab rectangular slab architecture - It is a very elegant and thin tower - Comes to a very elegant taper down the side of the building - Clearly a building that takes at its starting point the international ‘slab’ but changes it to make it more interesting Nervi, Palazzetto Dello Sport (Olympic Stadium), Rome - Shows Nervi’s ability to design - Angle and wide shaped piers - Covered a huge space inside - Exploited the material of reinforced concrete Le Corbusier, Unite d’habitation, Marseilles, France, 1946-1952 - Big need for housing after the war - This design is very much celebrated for its sculptural forms and innovative layout (plan) - Innovative way of designing apartment living - Designed the building in a landscaped setting - The site is important - Raised off the ground in the piloti (huge and made of reinforced concrete) - Lifted the building off the ground - The pilotis show the lines are left behind from the wood forms o The concrete is left raw, creates a very raw and unfinished character o This is where the term brutalism comes into play o Comes from the term raw concrete o Looks exactly as it sounds - Units were designed to have frontage on both side of the building o Allowed for cross ventilation and views on both sides - Designed in a very mechanized way o Almost like drawers in a chest of drawers - Color played a big role in his work, accentuates certain features - Was the become a community in itself - There was one floor in the middle of the building with a row of shops (idea was that you could get all your things from within the building) - There was a playground and daycare on top of the building (these utopian concepts didn’t really happen but this was the idea) o Rooftop garden idea is born, usable space Le Corbusier, Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950-1954 - Plays with forms - Placed high on a hill, context was very important - All concrete, due to reinforced concrete that this was possible - You don’t see the 5 points of architecture here because he is creating something very unique from his previous work - Roof looks very heavy but it actually does not lie on the walls (little glazing row in between)
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