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FAH101H1 Lecture Notes - Horatii, Urban Design, Consumerism

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Building and location/appearance
- Where the building is and why it looks the way it does
- Buildings are neither just structures nor just the outer forms
- Looking at building in a bigger context: diachronic (across a timeline) and synchronic (look at all aspects that affect the building at the same time).
- Location: a synchronic aspect special for buildings (as compared to paintings, where location is not as important). Knowing where the buildings is (country/
cityurban/rural?) will offer info on what the buildings are and why they look the way they do.The setting has become one of the buildings’ characteristics
- E.g., Galleria Vittorio. A building that fits into its urban context
- E.g., Falling Water. Will not be possible in any setting other than the one it is in. We cannot separate a building from its location
Ways to approach the study of a building
- E.g., Carson Pirie and Scott Store
- Appearance: Large building with regularly-spaced windows, multi-story
- Advancement in technology: Steel frame construction, invention and advance of elevators
- Great Fire in Chicago 1871: Impacted architecture in North America
- Consumer culture: Consumerism impacts a building’s design
- New building types: Department store, not exist prior to 19th century
- Gender issue: How architecture is a reflection of the way ppl use buildings, specifically the difference between gender roles
- Corporate financing and urban design: Property values and how that impacted architecture
Connections of buildings
- Key component in understanding why buildings look the way they do
- E.g., a british house of parliament looking a certain way achieved through a style of architecture. And the similar style is being used for house of parliament in
Canada as well, a different country.
- The fact that the web of connection between the buildings exists forces us to look in to why certain styles are chosen to project certain things
- The web of connection goes both forward to the future and backward to the past (e.g., past building types being revived, 19th century House of Parliament is built in
a Gothic revival style)
Start of modernism
- 1750 : What makes 1750s leading up to modernism.
- Age of enlightenment***(key aspect): search for knowledge, using science instead of superstition and believe in divine intervention. Looking more at science and
rational philosophies of understanding man and world.
- Oath of the Horatii: Neo-classic painting, idea of morality and the connection to the previous time
- Industrial revolution
- New materials created out of new technologies
- Migration of labour: the factories were put into active use in urban centers, influx of ppl from rural to urban, huge impact on all aspect of society)
- Increased mobility: e.g., train station appeared due to the invention of trains, new building type
- Mass production
- Change in social class: introduction of social class. Architecture used to be controlled by churches and state, now middle class can be the clients. Now only new
building types but also new opportunities for the needs for buildings to be constructed. Lead to explosion of constructions of all types of buildings.
British Neo-classicism Principles
-Belief that the society is in a state of degradation. It needed to be reformed to counter the moral decay that has taken place.
-Concept of virtue, looking to resolve issues that were believed to harm the society at the time. Civic humanism.
Chiswick House, 1725-1729
-Lord Burlington (Richard Boyle), amateur architect
-One of the earliest examples of the introduction of neoclassicism in English world
-Age of enlightenment/reason/industrial revolution: People are more engaged with the world around them and world outside their immediate location.
-The Grand Tour: an extensive trip visiting impt monuments/art works throughout Europe. Allow ppl like Lord Burlington who were not trained in archi to know
enough about architecture and design a house.
The Antiquities of Athens, 1751
-Illustration with detailed drawings of classical architectural features as well as the entire (sometimes reconstructed) monuments.
-Created an excitement for what was being found there in both Italy and Greece about classical archi.
-Looking at what was considered a pure and moral society, the Romans and Greeks. A way to counteract the world of decay.
Ten Books of Architecture, Vitruvius
-Another way for ppl to learn about architecture
-Important Roman theorist, wrote one of the most important archi treaties.
-Not much illustration in the original book, but has detailed description of how to design a classical building (e.g., column heights, spacing, overall plan.
-Also talked a lot about the use of buildings, stability of buildings. Important in understanding harmony and symmetry in architecture, as well as appropriate
Quattro libri dell’architecttura, Andrea Palladio, 1570
-Another example of architecture knowledge being gained through publication
-Andrea Palladio: One of most important Renaissance artists moving into the Baroque period
-Richly illustrated text with detailed features about architectural features/design with exact measurement
-Allow people all over the world to emulate the classical features from these textbooks
Villa Rotonda(VR), Vicenza, 1566-1570 Vs Chiswick House
-Significantly influenced the design of the Chiswick house, it’s prototype/inspiration
-Lord Burlington was not copying, but taking the best features with a modern interpretation in his design
-Similar porticos with columns and pediments, domes (slightly diff massing/shape), palladian windows
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