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FAH101H1 Lecture Notes - Carl Gotthard Langhans, Gothic Revival Architecture, Renaissance Revival Architecture

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Identification: Name of the building, architect (surname, unless father and son), location(specific), date (down to years), write sth about the building showing/what you
know about the building. Know all the works of the architects in the textbook discussed in class
So far we covered
-Beginning of modernism, neoclassicism as revolt against Rococo
-At the same time, also have many specialized styles came into play
-What makes the 19th century so complex in terms of art and architecture is that there are too many to label, cannot label the period as “Renaissance” or “Baroque”
-First part of 19th century is therefore know as “The battle of styles”
-Victorian architecture: refers to the period when Queen Elizabeth in her reign (1837-1901), not a style (though in some cases it becomes a stylistic category), more of
an era. Within Victorian period, there were many different styles of architecture, e.g., Greek revival, Gothic revival, Renaissance revival, and others. It is a stylistic
category for British (and it’s colonies) architecture.
The dream of the Architect, Thomas Cole, 1840
-During the period of the battle of the styles
-An architect sleeping on a bed of gigantic folios of architecture books on a gigantic column
-the background of the painting is his dream: Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Gothic/Gothic revival architecture, all the styles that were popular in the 1840s are
represented in this painting
-Many architects were capable of designing in a number of styles, it is important to figure out why they chose one over another when designing
-Introduction of new inspiration beyond Greek and Rome comes from the fact that geographically there’s more access/travel to these places, expansion of railways,
see more new cultures
Royal Pavilion, Brighton, John Nash, 1818-1820
-Clear influence in india, due to the accessible nature of traveling to India
-Retreat for Prince of Wills (future king)
-Playful adaptation of a palace, using a style that wasn’t common, created an unusual monuments
The Tombs, NY city, John Haviland, 1838
-A prison in DT Manhattan
-Egyptian motif, unique columns, squat with flared capital not seen in Greek and Roman architecture. Battering, the way the walls angled out, is also typical Egyptian
-Exotic taste gained momentum after Napoleon’s battles and the troops lured all the other countries
Greek Revival
-Brandenburg Gate, Berlin, Carl Gotthard Langhans, 1788-1791
-Was shown as a comparison to the plate from Ruins of the most beautiful monuments of Greece, propylea in Athens, the entrance gate to acropolis.
-The entrance gate has similarity with Brandenburg gate, which was for ceremonial entrance. Taking the classical features and configuration of the gate
-Germany and Britain had a very close relationship in terms of architecture at that time. A lot of flow of info between the two countries
-Germany shared with Britain a very strong interest in archaeology.
-Cross cultural connections
- Learnt the classical knowledge from the Grand tour and publications
-Downing College, Cambridge, William Wilkins, 1807-1821
-William Wilkins, the first one in Britain to introduce the Greek revival, have first hand info through traveling to Greece
-The patron travelled on the grand tour and recommended Greek revival for the building
-Have very long span dates due to lack of funds: designed in 1805, construction started 1807, finished on 1821.
-Looked very carefully at Greek architecture. Designed the building in an archaeological correct way, the proportions of the column are the same as what
one would find in a Greek temple, the ironic capitals is an imitation of the ironic capitals found in Greeks
St Pancras New Church, London, William Inwood, 1819-1822
-One of the first churches that embrace the Greek revival style. One of the 23 churches built in London between 1817-1829 (show importance of religion in society),
all in Greek revival style
-On the portico: classical order with fluted column and ironic capital
-A porch on the North side of the church: caryatids, a column in the form of draped female figures, a classical motif, influence from the Erechtheion from the
Acropolis of Athens in Greece
-Church tower: taking the form of/imitate the tower of the winds discovered in Athens
-Show an archaeological bias in Greek revival architecture, all coming from a group in society, rich patrons who went on the grand tour and continue to travel.
Society of Dilettanti
-Rich patrons, systematically arguing for the use of Greek Revival, not just in architecture but in all sorts of designs
-Charles Towneley in his sculpture gallery: idealized image of the members of the society of Dilettanti sitting in a room full of Greek antiqueties, sketching and
discussing ancient Greek world, using that as inspiration
-Did a lot to promote the knowledge of the Greek world.
1738-1748 The Antiquities of Athens
-Stuart and Revett: did a number of volumes on the antiquities of Athens.
-People in 18th and 19th century used a lot of their images as sources to understand what classical architecture looks like, and to see what architect in 18-19 century
are using as their patterns
-Focused on Greece, this focus became stronger around the beginning of 19th century, b/c battle of Napoleons had made it more difficult for the British to travel
around Europe but easier for the British to travel to Greece b/c it is connected by Turkey. So even though the British is no longer able to do their grand tour in Italy,
still able to go to Greek. Embrace the Greece much more
British Museum, London, Sir Robert Smirke, 1823-1846
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