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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George

LECTURE 4Materiality and TechnologyIndustrial revolution has major impact on all parts of civilization A movement from an old society to a more modern industrialized society factories being put in place technology affecting the ways ppl travel railways being developed etcOne of the major changes for archi is the introduction of iron as a building material everything we were looking at before were masonrywood Introduction of iron will completely change the direction of buidlingFlax Mill Shrewsbury England Charles Bage 17961797First introduction of iron into structuresbuildings happened in a very vernacular way First used for factories not considered as high architectureCharles Bage was sredited of being a major player in the introduction of iron into the great mill buildings which is required as a result of industrial revolution need factories to produce new materials and the buildings are not like any buildings before in terms of size and capacityIn Flax Mill rst time see iron frame constructionNot completely iron combined with masonry walls Introduction of slender iron columns is revolutionary In order to open up the oor space to as much open areas as possible so that it could serve best as a factory taking less footprint of the oor than the traditional columns An economic means in constructing and getting the size they wantedA lot of architects did not embrace iron as a building material immediately suspicion usualStarted its life as building materials for factories being introduced very slowlyCrystal Palace London Joseph Paxton 1851Built for the rst world exposition idea is to have an exposition that could bring all of the countries together to come to show what kind of goods and innovationsinventions that have been madeIn constructing an exhibition hall nd the full scale exploitation of the new materialiron both cast iron more brittle but better for tensile strength wrought iron more malleable can create detailscurvesAlso within the frame there are panels of glass advance of glazingglass also started around this timeMassive building 1850 feet long 400 feet wide very long linear structure with incredible spanDesigned with a long liner navelike structure with a cross transeptWas the largest contained interior space at that timeIn order to create a massive exhibition hall the material iron bc its new wasnt rst considered Held a design competition for building a temporary structure for the exhibition hallJoseph Paxton proposed a building to make use of the new material that was simple and easy to construct and deconstruct the design was much cheaperThe idea of using iron is probably precipitated by the fact that he worked with Decimus Burton and Richard Turner garden structure low artPalm House royal Botanical Gardens Kew 1845Helped Paxtion in understanding how to how this material workIron started in factories then garden architecture then temporary structure gradually as these examples are accepted iron was eventually incorporsted into buildingsHe understood the fact that with iron construction you can have built in modules prefabrication Designed the building in a number of stalk sectionspieces eg an arch all the components are made in factory and assembled on site A main Save time allow the pavilion to open in time for the exhibition and money one way that the architect could sell the innovation to the clientAdvantages of iron constructionPrefabrication cheaper and fasterStrength long span over large spaceCan be lled with glass allow for a lot of lightingAlso perceived to be more reproof than wooden building not true iron melts when the temp is high enough wrought iron twists and crambleBecame a wellknown building a technological marvel in the minds of the mid19th cent visitorsArchitects started to see how the material could be used and started to slowly accept it as an option for designing buildings rather than factorygarden structuresKings Cross Station London Lewis Cubitt 185152Train station one of the rst type of buildings embracing iron materialsIndustrial revolution increases ppls ability to travel by introducing railways and hence train stations a new building type in 19th century can better exploit the possibilities of the new material harder to do so for building types that have been around for a long time Date about the same time of the Crystal PalaceThe architect was trained as an engineerExterior maintained the use of masonry within the building the industrialized material came into playIn the back of the building the train sheds is where the material was exploited not the headhouseTrain sheds span over the tracks created two semicircular lunette on the exterior trying to draw attention to the technology and celebrate it unlike in some other cases where an architect designed a traditional looking facade hiding the technologyDecoration on the iron created details with wrought iron can create details to ornament the iron structure not simply a industrial look like the Flax MillThis kind of spaces created awareness in ppl of the endless possibility of ironBibliotheque Ste Genevieve Paris Henri Labrouste 1843One of the rst French architects to use iron predates Crystal PalaceFormal library building an example of trying to hide the use of iron structure from the exteriorOn the exterior masonry load bearing structure stone has an arcade of semicircular arched windows very Renaissance styles But within the spandrels panels engraved the names of the people whose books will be housed inside the library an example of didactic ornamentation to inform the passerby what the building it through specic ornamentations Similar idea as Ledouxs prison buildings speak to the viewerBuilding is rationally laid out central circulation area that leads to grand staircase stacks on one side and ofce space on the other 2nd oor is completely devoted to the large 2store reading roomFirst oor thick support load bearing system made of masonry to support the second oor still has the load bearing capacity Semidecorative arch made of cast iron between the columns introducing the material to the visitorOnce the visitors make their way up the grand staircase and making their way upon the second oor reading room they are then made aware of the extent of the new material Rounded arches similar to Cubitts trainstation a masonry loadbearing wall holding the truss of the columns large span of iron arches relatively smallnarrow column holding more space than the lower oor masonry amazed the viewer with the extent of the room due to the slenderness of the columnUse of iron in high architecture extensive use of iron inside but not outside
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