Lecture 1 : Overview of Main Monuments, + Parthenon
The Parthenon at Athens, Greece
-was built during the third quarter of the 5th Century BC .
Parthenon in Nashville - The City of Nashville first undertook the construction of a full-scale replica of
the Parthenon to house the art exhibition for the 1897 Tennessee Centennial Exposition. Cities, industries
and other interest groups built pavilions for the celebration. Nashville's pavilion was constructed of brick,
wood and plaster and was intended to reflect the city's reputation as the "Athens of the South."
Chinese Terracotta Warriors in Xi’an, Linton
Built by Qin Emperor Shi Huang (259-210) upon ascending the throne in 246 B. C. It took 11 years to
finish. Rediscovered in 1974.
Dura Europos Synagogue (in today’s Syria) preserves oldest Jewish synagogue
Discovered in 1932, dated back to 244
Frescos now displayed in the national museum of Damascus.
Arch of Constantine in Rome
No one knows the real purpose of the monument
Can be seen from the windows of the coliseum
Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey
Built by Isidore of Miletus and Anthelmus of Tralles (532-537).
The building’s 101-foot diameter makes it the largest domical structure in the world.
Chartres Cathedral in Chartres (50 miles southwest of Paris), France.
The first of the High Gothic cathedrals in France, planned from the beginning with flying buttresses.
The cathedral preserves the relic of the Holy Mantle of the Virgin…
Arena Chapel in Italy
The "private" chapel to the palace of the Paduan merchant Enrico Scrovegni, c. 1305.
Most probably designed by Giotto, and certainly painted with frescoes by Giotto, depicting the childhood
of Christ and his Passion, with an Emphasis on the Last Judgment.
Arnolfini Wedding by Jan van Eyck
Gianloranzo Bernini 1598-1680
Rembrant van Rijn 1606-1669 Apollo and Daphne
Ecstasy of St. Theresa
Francisco José de Goya Lucientes
Third of May 1808 (1814)
The Disasters of War
Jacques Louis David
Death of Marat 1793
Olympia 1865 - looks like Titian’s Venus of Urbino
Le dejeuner sur l’herbe
Picasso (1881-1973) and his Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, or
The Philosophical Bordello.
Parthenon - 447 - 432 BC
● When work began on the parthenon, the athenian empire was at the height of it’s power.
● Built by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates.
● It served successively as a Christian church, a mosque, and a gunpowder depot, and accidentally
blew up in 1687.
● It is the epitome of Doric temple building.
● Symbolizes the power and influence of Athenian politician Perikles, who initiated/championed
● The decision by the Athenians in 454 BC to move the League treasury from Delos to the
Athenian acropolis points in the same direction. Because the Parthenon was built with League
funds, the building may be read as an expression of the confidence of the Athenians. But the piety
of this undertaking should not be underestimated; the Persians had sacked the temples on the
Athenian acropolis in 480, and rebuilding them fulfilled the Athenians' debt of gratitude to
● The name Parthenon refers to the worship of Athena Parthenos. She was the maiden/virgin patron
goddess of Athens. Pure in mind, body and heart, Athena is considered generally to be the
goddess of wisdom.
● The interior housed the cult statue of Athena, made of gold and ivory. The statue vanished. It can
be reconstructed through literary descriptions, reduced copies and adaptations…She was 11.5
meters tall. ● Athena probably stood with her weight on her right leg, and her left leg relaxed (Contrapposto).
She wore sandals, a peplos belted over the overfold, and a helmet. The helmet was decorated with
griffins and sphinxes. On the palm of her outstretched hand she held a statue of Nike, and in the
other she held a spear. At her feet rested a shield, within which a serpent representing
Erichthonios) was coiled. On the statue base was illustrated the birth of Pandora, the progenitor of
the race of women.
● A back room most likely held Athena’s treasure. Contrary to the rest of the architecture, this room
was supported with Ionian columns. The gold of Athena statue could be removed, so it made part
of this repository of weal