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University of Toronto St. George

Lecture 1 : Overview of Main Monuments, + Parthenon The Parthenon at Athens, Greece -was built during the third quarter of the 5th Century BC . Parthenon in Nashville - The City of Nashville first undertook the construction of a full-scale replica of the Parthenon to house the art exhibition for the 1897 Tennessee Centennial Exposition. Cities, industries and other interest groups built pavilions for the celebration. Nashville's pavilion was constructed of brick, wood and plaster and was intended to reflect the city's reputation as the "Athens of the South." Chinese Terracotta Warriors in Xi’an, Linton Built by Qin Emperor Shi Huang (259-210) upon ascending the throne in 246 B. C. It took 11 years to finish. Rediscovered in 1974. Dura Europos Synagogue (in today’s Syria) preserves oldest Jewish synagogue Discovered in 1932, dated back to 244 Frescos now displayed in the national museum of Damascus. Arch of Constantine in Rome No one knows the real purpose of the monument Can be seen from the windows of the coliseum Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey Built by Isidore of Miletus and Anthelmus of Tralles (532-537). The building’s 101-foot diameter makes it the largest domical structure in the world. Chartres Cathedral in Chartres (50 miles southwest of Paris), France. The first of the High Gothic cathedrals in France, planned from the beginning with flying buttresses. The cathedral preserves the relic of the Holy Mantle of the Virgin… 1145, 1194-1220s. Arena Chapel in Italy The "private" chapel to the palace of the Paduan merchant Enrico Scrovegni, c. 1305. Most probably designed by Giotto, and certainly painted with frescoes by Giotto, depicting the childhood of Christ and his Passion, with an Emphasis on the Last Judgment. Arnolfini Wedding by Jan van Eyck 1434 Gianloranzo Bernini 1598-1680 Rembrant van Rijn 1606-1669 Apollo and Daphne Ecstasy of St. Theresa Francisco José de Goya Lucientes (1746-1828) Third of May 1808 (1814) The Disasters of War and Jacques Louis David (1748-1825, Neoclassicism) Death of Marat 1793 Napoleon Edouard manet Olympia 1865 - looks like Titian’s Venus of Urbino Le dejeuner sur l’herbe Picasso (1881-1973) and his Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, or The Philosophical Bordello. Parthenon - 447 - 432 BC ● When work began on the parthenon, the athenian empire was at the height of it’s power. ● Built by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates. ● It served successively as a Christian church, a mosque, and a gunpowder depot, and accidentally blew up in 1687. ● It is the epitome of Doric temple building. ● Symbolizes the power and influence of Athenian politician Perikles, who initiated/championed it’s construction. ● The decision by the Athenians in 454 BC to move the League treasury from Delos to the Athenian acropolis points in the same direction. Because the Parthenon was built with League funds, the building may be read as an expression of the confidence of the Athenians. But the piety of this undertaking should not be underestimated; the Persians had sacked the temples on the Athenian acropolis in 480, and rebuilding them fulfilled the Athenians' debt of gratitude to heaven. ● The name Parthenon refers to the worship of Athena Parthenos. She was the maiden/virgin patron goddess of Athens. Pure in mind, body and heart, Athena is considered generally to be the goddess of wisdom. ● The interior housed the cult statue of Athena, made of gold and ivory. The statue vanished. It can be reconstructed through literary descriptions, reduced copies and adaptations…She was 11.5 meters tall. ● Athena probably stood with her weight on her right leg, and her left leg relaxed (Contrapposto). She wore sandals, a peplos belted over the overfold, and a helmet. The helmet was decorated with griffins and sphinxes. On the palm of her outstretched hand she held a statue of Nike, and in the other she held a spear. At her feet rested a shield, within which a serpent representing Erichthonios) was coiled. On the statue base was illustrated the birth of Pandora, the progenitor of the race of women. ● A back room most likely held Athena’s treasure. Contrary to the rest of the architecture, this room was supported with Ionian columns. The gold of Athena statue could be removed, so it made part of this repository of weal
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