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FAH330 november 6.docx

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Melody Neumann

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FAH330: November 6 2012.h REVIEW: Landscapes in the renaissance- new genre, secular? Not exactly. Landscapes flavoured how images were seen. Germany as an emerging idea to frame people’s ideologies. Who were the ancient Germans? Ancestors of the german masters we are considering and intellectuals we have drawn into discussion, how did they live and what were their virtues? Durer’s interest in dress and costume, costume defining identities and providing clues of their vices and virtues. Lady on horseback with the feather in her hat prominently jumping out, signifying the improper leading role the woman is taking in the relationship between her and the man. Sketch of three turks at a time when there was rising interest in the nature of the Turk because it gave such a real threat to Europeans at this time, when the ottoman empire was expanding into Greece and had taken Constantinople (previous capital of the holy roman empire) in 1453. Durer also had a lively interest in peasant attire (hints at hoarse lifestyle they might lead). Knight death and devil as an emblem of German identity, idea they were virtuous, steadfast and the individual as a soldier of Christ fighting evil. Fight for Christendom and troubles of the individual too, humanism… Durer the standard bearer - siege of Vienna in 1529 Durer, five Soldiers and a Turk on Horseback 1495 engraving - possible reference to hungary, facing the threat of Turkish invasion - they stand idly while a figure wearing a turban on horseback charges behind them (turban signifies ottoman empire) and only one figure seems to be ready to challenge him - this challenger who seems awake to the threat is shown completely from behind - one of the configurations of politics in Europe at this time, discussions happening among rulers of Germany and Europe. But they were never able to pool their forces effectively to face the turk because of internal divisions and ongoing wars between Europe itself. - Part of the problem, no sense of having to defend chistendom against the turk. It was always the local interests of the princes and authorities who did not want to add their resources to an effort they would have little control over, and in which the pope would be leading militarily Durer Landscape with a Canon 1518 engraving - depicts countryside around Nuremberg - the canon bears the coat of arms of the city - military connotation - enigmatic print, it is not clear who the figures are. The sense of the canon standing watch over the area, and a strength suggested by the roof behind it and the enormous tree trunk that rises up behind the canon The battle of Issus, Albrecht Durer 1529 - last week we saw he sometimes painted landscape exclusively as subject - painted for William IV (duke of Bavaria) - battle when alexander the great defeated the Persians under their ruler, darius - huge landscape spreads to take in the eastern Mediterranean, as if we look from the mountains of Greece and over the sea to show a bright stretch of water (the red sea) and a mouth of a river (the nile in Egypt) - he is keen to give us signposts so we can decode the landscape - normally, this would not be visible all together in a landscape - 2 clashing armies dressed in contemporary uniforms and armour, persians and darius fleeing from the attack - this is precisely the year in which the turks are defeated at their siege of Vienna and pushed back eastward out of imperial territory - historical backdrop intended here to valourize the military triumphs of the empire - brightness of sun on the right hand side, and a feeble moon behind pushed out on the left oppositely Durer Book of Hours of Maximillian. Drawings for printed book of hours 1513 - Franciscan and menidcan orders popular in urban centers - Again criticisms are vocal of clerical lifestyles that have no concern for the spiritual well being of the populous - Criticism leads to the proliferation of opinions of how a Christian should live - Destiny, the election of the Hebrews and the transfer of that elected status to Christians - The empire founded by Charlemagne thought to be the empire that would lead to last judgement and lead to all people under an angelic Christian pope - Want reform, the mendicans were a reform movement. The general reform of the church was felt to have three aspects - Direct doctrines of Christendom, education of the population so they could understand it, the establishment of primary schools and Sunday classes - Finally that Christendom needed to improve in public morals and sexual morals Late medieval devotion relied on a sense that the religious figures did not pay taxes. It was their responsibility to understand Christian teachings, give charity and support for the poor, cultivate prayers and adhere to a strict moral code. The lay people were just meant to live their lives the best they could in the world. In the 14 th and 15 century this changes, and lay people begin to wonder how sinful man can th be saved from hell. This became a burning issue in the 15 century because of increased preaching on punishment and hellfire eternal, this was urging people to behave better but it increased their fear. Increasing people’s fear leads to more erratic responses to the world, and a feeling that there is a need to do something for their own salvation and not just let the clergy take care of it. Lay people began to be increasingly fixated on rituals, ritual prayers (the rosary beads, used to count off a series of prayers) touching images and relics in hopes of direct contact with the divine. Previously these practices previously just done by monks and nuns. The rise of the book of hours for lay people, especially the nobility. They were leading the way in this deovition trend, this practice of praying hours was taken over from monastic context. They would have a certain series of prayers and devotions that reflected the theme of that day (saints associated with the day, etc). maximiliian I participated in this, and did the margins of a printed book of hours for him. Never completed, but we have pages of it. Imago Pietatis, Israhel van meckanem 1495 - indulgences - finances into the equation, donations of money to be released for a # of years from hell - pilgrimages to sites, etc. - this image associated with the remisison of sin, and this is meckanem’s version of the image - people were buying prints like this in hopes of saving themselves mass of st. Gregory, Albrecht durer 1511 - accompanied by a doubting assistant - when the wine/eucharist was being transformed into the actual body of Christ, he appeared on the altar. Blood dripping from his wounds into the chalice, and showing the doubter there was Christ in this central doctrine of the church - this Christ with his wounds became the imago pietatis - so the print above symbolizes access to the divine via church sacraments Master E.S’s Einsiedeln Madonna - she seems really present on the alter again So many reports of miracles in the 1520’s, icons like the icon of the virgin (favoured ot be painted by st.luke) were popular because of the likeness to the virgin, and the proximity therefore illicited by them. Clergyman praying - exact fantasy fed by icon images to lay people special feast days, access imbedded in the liturgy of the day. Which masses were being said around the altarpiece, and it was contained within a church frame work. Physically and functionally within ritual actions controlled by the church. This control was felt to be necessary because of the strong desire for material access. Peter Vischer tomb of st. sebald, bronze. Church of st. sebald Nuremberg 1488 - attempt to contain the devotions around the relics of st. sebald within a framework that provided people with guidance and moderation in their devoitons. - The apostles seem as if they are on guard around it, not a coincidence - Controlling people’s responses to relics Portrait of Desiderious Erasmus Portrait of Erasmus of Rotterdam, Hans Holbein the Younger 1523 - famous because of his printed texts, they were distributed widely and
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