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Intellectual Paradigms + Thinkers II

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University of Toronto St. George
Leanne Caroll

FAH102H1 Week 6a Critical Thinkers + Intellectual Paradigms Part II -Semiotics, structuralism, post-structuralism, deconstruction -SEMIOTICS -while most paradigms look at the MEANING of a work, semiotics looks at WHYHOW meaning (+interpretation) is even possible -study of science (words, images, sounds, gestures, objects, ideas) -> how they represent things -signs art part of a system or structure -science is possible not bc of any inherent meaning, but because signs are PART of a systemstructure -there are RULES to communicationexpression that underpin all cultures -shifts from the producer to the SYSTEM that allows expressionsinterpretations -the viewer is a conduit through which meaning flows -the most influential ideas for ART HISTORY come from: 1) Sassure: linguist -proposed that linguistic analysis could provide a basis for semiology -parole: individual utterancesstatements -langue: wider system in which these utterances are located -sign: composed of 2 parts: -signifier: the form that the SIGN takes. Eg. Word tree (the literal form of the word on the page, its sound, etc.) -signified: the concept to which the sign refers -the relationship between these two is arbitrary; but the signifier is ACCEPTED + used -onomatopeic words = motivated signs -> are still conventions even though they sound like the meaning theyre conveying -language CREATES our reality; anti-realist -vs. Realist (who believes these are things in the world irregardless of who observes them) -meaning is created DIFFERENTIALLY -> signs only get their meaning by being different from other signs in the system; eg. The word low has meaning because its different from law, and bc its opposite from high -tree only make sense to us because its different from any other combination of letters -Dyachronic: Philological approach (looks at HOW words CHANGE over time), as opposed to the SYSTEM of language + meaning. Sassure chooses synchronic approach instead -Synchronic: the system at a particular moment 1
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