FAH207 Lec#2

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Dr.Christina Katsougiannopoulou

FAH207Lecture2 May.16,2013 AncientGreekSculpture Chronological overview Geometric: 9th-7th c BC Orientalizing: 7thc. BC Archaic: 6th c. BC Classical: 5th-4th c. BC Hellenistic: 324-31BC AncientGreekReligion *Polytheism *Anthropomorphism > envisioning the gods as human; in human form *Belief in after-life *No sacred texts- no doctrine > unlike the main monotheistic religions like Christianity/ Islam *Myth embedded into religion *Ritual practice- sacrifice and worship- contractual nature of the relationship between gods and humans. *main context in which art appears is religious. *religion was evolutionary *Gods looked like humans from a very early time. *Each god develops a distinct iconography (what they look like/ are represented as) The‘DarkAges’ofGreececa.1100-900BC Social and Political Developments - Disappearance of Mycenaean kingdoms (Bronze Age), settlements of Mycenaean Greeks on the Aegean islands, Crete, Cyprus and the coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). - Depopulation and impoverishment Arts and Culture - Loss of literacy, loss of sophisticated art skills; no monumental architecture, but wood and mudbrick - Use of iron instead of bronze for many objects - Cremation as burial custom - Survival of Bronze Age cults and ritual practices - Beginnings of a very basic wood architecture *a period of poverty *technology in the period was very low key *We should not expect any sculpture from this period *Pottery and clay emerge Lefkandi,CentaurfromcemeterynexttotheHeroonca.900BC This clay statuette is a good illustration of the modest beginnings of Greek Sculpture in the geometric period (which preferred materials that are easy to work with such as wood and clay). It is also and early example of a mixed-creature (man-horse), later known as a centaur. It was a tomb offering The early geometric decor does not reproduce the different textures of the body - Height 36cm * made of clay *body made on the potters wheel, head handcrafted *Centaurs associated with evil behavior *The body covered in geometric design, fashion of the time *Has hole, may have been for pouring out liquid *Found broken in half, found in a burial *closet thing we really have as a sort of sculpture style from this age → First cult statues- xoana → In early shrines cult statues may have been a piece of wood or a block of stone representing the divinity- so first images of the gods were anionic (non- representational) TheGeometricPeriod Named after the predominant form of decor found on ceramics Social and Political Developments: - Emergence of the Greek polis (“city-state”) - Panhellenic sanctuaries (Olympia, Delphi, Dodona) and the Olympic Games-776 BC - Contacts with the Mediterranean world - Beginning of “ Greek colonization” - Emergence of a sense of unity and Greek identity through shared myth and cult - Athens (which had been spared by the destruction at the end of the Mycenaean period) emerges as an economic and political center Arts and Culture - Composition of the Homeric poems - Emergence of representational art- Myth in art - Introduction of the alphabet under Pheonician influence- Literacy * Geometric is the prevalent style for pottery during this time *great advancements after the dark ages *Must remember that the Greeks were never a united nation, broken into city states, mostly self governed *Despite this separation, the greeks share the same culture, religion ect.. *Finances are getting better, trade increases, especially with the East *Greeks expand/ colonize to the West (Sicily, southern Italy) *Representational art> figures> sculpture Athens,Kerameikos Such horses were used as offerings in sanctuaries and tombs. Horses were important status symbols of rural aristocracy. The entire artistic production of the geometric period, with its focus on animals and warrior figures, reflects the experience and ideals of a land-owning aristocracy. *found in a burial *geometric style *why a horse?> aristocratic outlook. Most of the polis ruled by the land-owning aristocrats, horses a symbol of status BronzewarriorfromKarditsa,northernGreece He wears a helmet, carries a shield and held a lance in his right hand. He is depicted naked, wearing only a belt - around 700BC - height 28cm * Made of Bronze *the form is very primitive *In the geometric period, the forms (on pottery and in this statue) are in a geometric style, as in the torso is very triangular etc.. *The form is nude Bronzegroup *depicts a male figure in hat, interacting with a mythological figure (centaur) also in hat *The figure is larger which may suggest it was a hero, battling a centaur *Not free-standing, attachments *Cauldron > Bronze vessels> found often in Olympia, prizes of the Olympic games > topped with these attachments TheOrientalizingPeriod Social and Political Developments - Greek ‘colonization’- the first Greek colony in Syria (Al Mina, 9th c. BC) - fist cololnies in Southern Italy in the 2nd quarter of the 8th.c BC - Reasons for colonization: trade, search for metals, population growth, shortage of land, political conflicts - Emergence of non-aristocratic landowners- change in military tactic and technology - Rule of “Tyrants” (aristocrats emerging as sole rulers) - introduction of money Arts and Culture - Import of oriental goods, techniques, ideas and motives in art - Emergence of monumental architecture and sculpture under oriental influence (Egypt, Mesopotamia) - Shift from heroic poetry (epic) to more personal poetry (lyric) *Strong influence in ideas and technologies from the east *the greeks adopt and transform *precious metals, ivory *money *literacy *greek alphabet > from Phoenician script *adoption of oriental iconography in painting, pottery and motifs Deros,Cultstatuesc.700BC The three statuettes probably stood on the bench in the shrine of Dreros, Crete. They are made of Bronze plates that were hammered over a wooden core; their appearance probably reflects the Xoana or Sphyrelata mentioned in literary sources. The statuettes could represent the god Apollo and his mother and sister Leto and Artemis. *small scale, free standing *found on Crete *One large male naked figure, with 2 smaller clothed females *females in an eastern style dress, male naked= Greek GreekColonization Results of the colonization were and intensification of trade and exchange of ideas (and craftsmen) between Greeks and the near East; the adaptation of eastern motifs and techniques in art (ex: ivory carving); and the introduction of monumental stone sculpture under Egyptian influence. *Not enough resources in Greek cities, expand to large areas outside Greece OrientalInfluenceandcross-culturalcontactinthelate-geometricand‘orientalizing’periods Pic#1- Athens female ivory figure- 730BC Pic#2- Imported Assyrian statuette (fertility goddess), from Heraion at Samos- 700- 650BC *Female ivory figurine, rare- as ivory does not generally last *Very rare iconography because she is nude (** question prof re:painting) *Fertility goddess > always depicted naked *The Greek one, is slender still very geometric, why the oriental one is rounded > the greeks adapted the style to their own taste LadyofAuxeerec.640BC The “Lady of Auxerre” is typical of the ‘Daedalic style’, which takes it’s name from Daedalus, the legendary artist and inventor who according to Greek myth constructed the Labyrinth on Crete. The 7th century ‘Daedalic style’ was used in various media (and various sizes) such as stone, clay and ivory. It’s characteristics are the flat, planklike appearance of the figure and the triangular shapes of hair (which looks like a wig) and face. Females are now draped, which will remain a convention of Greek art for several hundred years. *Sculpture on a monumental scale, in stone *middle 7th c. *new style > Daedalic *Daedalus was the first to create wings (given to Icarus), embedded in myth, so we don’t know if he was real, but attributed to him *Head is usually triangular, hair style usually looks like a wig *Body still very plank-like *Found in Auxeere, looted and brought to France *gesture could have been suggesting divinity *Greek sculpture was painted *This style not only in stone, also in clay and ivory Ivorymalefigure *Male youth, kneeling *triangular body, wig-like hair *May have been a part of a lyre EmergenceofAncientGreekMonumentalsculptureandtheinfluenceofEgypt * Daedalic style was the first step towards monumental style *7th c. greeks travel to Egypt, usually as mercenaries, able to see the Egyptian styles, take
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