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Flora Ward (26)

July 29 art lecture .docx

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Flora Ward

Insular Art: Word and Image in the British Isles 7 to 9 Century  Insular: Ireland or Britain  Rebecca at the Well: Vienna Genesis (written on purple dye parchment codex)  Writing was written in silver ink  Spiritual and luxurious object  Christians are a people of the book  Ireland had been Christianized from the 5 century  Synod of Whitby: church meeting  turning point  the tradition of Irish Christianity was put on the backburner in favour of the Roman  Feast of Easter: one of the most important in the Christian liturgical year  You have to calculate it based on the moon (Lunar), for Easter Anglo-Saxons: rich textual sources that described the process of Christianity Bead: History of the England People (year 730) Begins in South region of Kent  Bead tells us that Pope sent us missionaries sent by St. Augustine  Augustine and his monks arrived on an island off the coast of Kent  King of Kent came to greet them  Bead tells us King was suspicious of any type of magic  Instead of the kind of magic Kent was familiar with, instead he got image of Christ painted on wooden board  Taken with missionaries like Augustine, to convert people to Christianity  Cult of images: images painted of the Holy figures…the images treated themselves as Holy Box with relics from the Holy Land  They point to what is not present  At the same time, they make these holy figures present in virtual form  Fragments in the box: image working together with the relics  These images painted on the box have these validating function  Images share the sanctity of the event being commemorated  These holy images turned into icons  The boundaries between east to west were much more fluid and flexible  What is an icon?: contains a depiction of specific holy figure: Peter, Paul, Christ, Mary, etc.  Iconography: within Christian world  Missionaries took them along with them to teach about Christian religion  A year after, the King decided to convert to Christianity  Shortly after their arrival, Monks were allowed to move around the walls of Canterburry  Decided to make Augustine a Bishop so that he could set up a cathedral within Canterburry  Outside the walls, Augustine established his monastic tradition Papal dedications: Sts. Peter and Paul  Reminds us that it’s the Pope who sent Augustine Burial ad sanctos (next to the saints) in Anglo-Saxon Canterbury: Augustine’s foundation of Sts. Peter and Paul Burial near the saints gave them direct contact with the Holy, throughout eternity  When Augustine and his monks arrived on Cant., they brought numerous books with them  Exportation of Rome culture to England, along with Christianity  Common for Augustine and other missionaries to display missions in book, so it’s a teaching function  It shows how important pictures and images were  Role of images in the process of conversion  None other than Pope Gregory the Great (from Old st. peters), provides a rational for the use of images for conversion  He thought people were worshipping the images rather than the people in the images so he had the images destroyed  Pictures become books for the illiterate  People who don’t know the story, who aren’t Christians, these images would be good for them  Images should teach about the Bible and Christianity Luke, the Evangelist  This manuscript is a Gospel book  A gospel book is a separate kind of manuscript, different from the bible  Gospel books were essential for the Eucharist  The performance of the mass required a reading from the Gospel- that reading would change everytime you read at the mass  These 6 and 7 century portraits comes from the classical tradition of author portraits St. Augustine Gospels  12 series of Christ  Box of Relics from the Holy land is similar to the St. Augustine Gospels  Narrative scenes on the box connect directly with the relics scenes, and vice versa  Images are sharing in the sanctity with the associated relics or associated text  It’s also similar to the Quedlinburg Itala  Roman book (12 scenes), is the continuation of the tradition of early Christianity narrative How did the Monks go from South to North?  Gave land to a monk named Benedict Biscot, to find a monastic community, and bring this brand of Roman Christianity to a part of Britain  Monk Waremoth-> church dedicated to St. Peter  In 681, he sent a monk to Gero, to find a new monestary, and this was dedicated to St. Paul Monastery of St. Peter, Monwearmouth (England)  combination of different features  He went to Rome and brought back lots of stuff! Like books  Building things out of stone, as opposed to building them out of timber and wood  These churches were built out of stone in the Roman manner  Benedict Biscot brought over stone-workers from France, to help him work on these buildings  We see evidence of that here  We see a combination. These columns were made for this building, not reused.  Column shafts were used from Roman sites, but the capitals carved on top were carved by the French craftsmen, depicting Roman culture (right picture)  In the left picture, column are made fresh, not reused  Left picture, interlace pattern, similar to the metalwork on the right (6 century) St. Paul’s
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