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Lecture 4

FAH377 Week 4 Image ID

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Jane Wolf

January 09. 2013 FAH377 Landscape Architecture Week 4 The Plan of Chicago did not invent new Solutions to all the region’s problems. Some, particularly social and housing needs, were considered beyond the scope of the document, and several sections that Burnham drafted were not included in the final published Plan. In other areas, such as railroad terminal needs and plans for an outer park system, existing schemes were incorporated into the Plan and duly credited. Title: Plan of Chicago: View looking west over the city, showing the proposed Civic Center, the Grand Axis, Grant Park & the Harbor Designers: Daniel Burnham & Edward Bennett, Delineator: Jules Guerin (drew/described) Date/Date of Image: 1909 Medium: Drawing Title: Plan of Chicago: Railway station scheme west of the river, showing the relation to the Civic Centre Architects: Daniel Burnham & Edward Bennett Delineator: Jules Guerin Date/Date of Image: Medium: Drawing Seductive renderings by Jules Guérin give the Plan of Chicago much of its impact. At left, symmetrical piers and a new Congress Street (center) leads to the Civic Center with a wintry sunset beyond. Above, the proposed West Loop railway stations west of the Chicago River with the Civic Center beyond at Congress and Halsted. As a comprehensive look at the region’s needs, the Plan looked far beyond the city limits, describing highways radiating throughout and encircling the Chicago region, and parks and harbor facilities scaled for the metropolitan area’s future needs. It recommended that “a commission should be appointed to lay out all that territory adjacent to the city of Chicago which is likely to become incorporated in the city at least during the next decade” to ensure that streets connected and were of suitable width, that provisions were made for schools, parks, and libraries, and that building restrictions limited “undesirable classes of structures.” An appendix noted the changes to state law that would be needed for the Plan’s full implementation. Maps and diagrams were supplemented with birds-eye views and romantic overviews of the city painted by Jules Guérin. Readers could see a beautiful and orderly city that was nonetheless recognizably Chicago, incorporating the city’s river and lakeshore, Principal points of the Plan of Chicago  The improvement of the Lake Front.  The creation of a system of highways outside the city.  The improvement of railway terminals and the development of a complete traction system  for both freight and passengers.  The acquisition of an outer park system, and of parkway circuits. 1 January 09. 2013  The systematic arrangement of the streets and avenues within the city in order to facilitate the movement to and from the business district.  The development of centers of intellectual life and of civic administration, so related as to give coherence and unity to the city. Title: L'Enfant Plan of 1791 - Washington Architect: Pierre Charles L'Enfant Date: 1791 Glenn Brown enumerated the maps of the eleven European Cities Thomas Jefferson sent L’Enfant on April 10, 1791, but singled out Paris and London as the “capital cities of the two most powerful countries of the world in L’Enfant’s time.” Paris was L’Enfant’s native city and Sir Christopher Wren’s 1666 plan for rebuilding London exhibited key elements of L’Enfant’s Washington: long, broad boulevards & public squares or circles from which streets radiated. Brown wanted L’Enfant’s Paris & nearby royal gardens to be major influences on the original design for Washington cuz Paris, Versailles, & Vaux-le-Vicomte of 1901 were major influences on the Senate Park Commission’s “revival” of L’Enfant’s plan to be made public in just a few days. Wanted Wren Title: Avenue in the Park - Versailles, France. Designer: Daniel Burnham, et al Cited in McMillan Report Date1902 to 1902 Suggesting the shaded walks of the proposed monument grove. Title: Basin and Great Canal, Fountain bleau Agent: McMillan Report Date: 1902 to 1902 Image: 1902 Canal is similar in character and general treatment to the canals at Versailles and Fountainebleau, in France, and at Hampton Court, in England, introduces into the formal landscape an element of repose and great beauty. 2 January 09. 2013 Title: General Plan of Mall System Designers: Daniel Burnham, et al. Illustrator: Unknown Date: 1902 The "Congress house" and the "President's palace," as he termed them, were the cardinal features of L'Enfant's plan; and these edifices he connected "by a grand avenue , bordered by gardens, ending in a slope from the houses on each side." At the point of intersection of two lines, one drawn through the center of the Capitol the other drawn through the center of the White House, L'Enfant fixed the site of an equestrian statue of General Washington, one of the numerous statues voted by the Continental Congress but never erected. The composition of the plan is a symmetrical, polygonal, or kite-shaped, figure bisected from east to west by the axis of the Capitol and from north to south by the White House axis. Regarding the Monument as the center, the Capitol as the base, and the White House as the extremity of one arm of a Latin cross, we have at the head of the composition on the banks of the Potomac (river on the left) a memorial site of the greatest possible dignity, with a second and only less commanding site at the extremity of the second arm. Title: No. 35. - Model of the Mall, Showing Treatment Proposed. Looking West. McMillan Report for Washington, D.C. Date: 1902 The McMillan Plan (formally titled The Report of the Senate Park Commission. The Improvement of the Park System of the District of Columbia) is a comprehensive planning document for the development of the monumental core and the park system of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. The Senate Park Commission wrote it in 1902. The commission is popularly known as the McMillan Commission after its chairman, Senator James McMillan of Michigan. On the western side of the Capitol grounds, where Pennsylvania and Maryland avenues converge, the L'Enfant plan shows "a public walk, were carriages ascend to the upper square of the Federal house." The placing of the defenders of the Union at this great point of convergence particularly justifies the name of "Union Square." illuminated, embellished with fountains, and commanded by terraces, this square would compare favorably, in both size and usage, with the Place de la Concorde in Paris. 3 January 09. 2013 Title: District of Columbia - Parks and Open Spaces Designer: McMillan Report Commission: Delineator: Jules Guerin, Cited by Daniel Burnham & Edward Bennett in the Plan of Chicago Date: 1909 Block plan showing the park system (green), and additions (dark green. Proposed by Senate Park Commission. He was an early advocate for parks and open space who understood their importance in fostering a deep sense of community in a democracy. Title: General View southward from Hull, Quebec in Holt Commission Report for Ottawa Designer: Edward Bennett Date: 1915 The Federal Plan Commission (FPC) was composed of a group of conservative businessmen and chaired by Herbert Holt, the president of the Royal Bank. Work began immediately and between 1913 and 1914 Bennett and his team of engineers and draftsmen prepared surveys and completed detailed technical analyses of Ottawa. Bennett planned for growth over the long-term. The 1915 plan projected that Ottawa’s population would be 250,000 by 1950. Included technical analyses of land uses, population projections, population densities, and railway and streetcar traffic and included urban design requirements, zoning, parks, and a government building analysis the plan proposed that urban development in Ottawa and Hull take a circular form with businesses in the centre, warehouses and high density residential uses adjacent to the CBD and along the transport lines radiating from the centre, and lower density residential spreading beyond that. Bennett’s plan was effectively shelved for a number of reasons relating to timing, politics, leadership, and criticism to the planning movement. The Bennett Plan prepared a conjectural bird's eye of what the capital would like from the air. Title: Chicago: Diagram of the city and surrounding country, showing railroad circuits, B, C, D, and E, which are, or may become, tangent to the inner circuit (A). Architects: Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennett Delineator: Jules Guerin Date/Date of Image: 1909 Medium: Illustrations from the Plan of Chicago The Plan proposes consolidating the region’s existing railroad tracks (blue) into a shared network of “circuits.” An enormous freight center (gold area) used by all railroads would be linked to downtown and South Chicago harbors, and to central area freight houses. Freight Handler to the Nation,” Chicago in 1909 was being strangled by freight handling. Virtually all cargo moved long distances by railroad, so every railroad 4 January 09. 2013 maintained its own freight house near the business district. Slow horse-drawn wagons carried freight through the Loop, impeding downtown traffic. Boxcars sat idle in railroad yards for days at a time. The Plan proposed an ambitious scheme of shared freight railroad circuits, which would encircle the city at various distances and be used by all railroads, with a huge consolidated freight yard south of today’s Midway Airport. The Plan cited the example of Chicago’s tunnel system under downtown streets, which allowed small freight shipments to move from railroad freight houses to downtown basements without congesting surface streets. Whatever the merits of the proposals, the Plan had little influence over the railroads, Title: Chicago: Diagram of the city, showing complete system of inner circuits Architects: Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennett, Delineator: Jules Guerin Date: 1909
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