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Lectures 2nd Half

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Giancarla Periti

FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • at end of some classes will be asked to write small paragraph about what you learned in that class - don’t really count towards mark, for prof’s purposes • looking at iconography • differences between techniques of production of art WEEK ONE September 10, 2012 Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral and Bapistery - Dome of Florence Cathedral by Brunelleschi • cathedral is main church (“mother church”) in any Catholic city • “mother church” because it contains seat/chair of bishop • dome was missing because it was a technical problem, unable to construct until Brunelleschi came and constructed it • studied ancient monuments with arches and domes to solve problem and design dome • beginning of Renaissance art is when technical problem is solved through looking back to antiquity, rebirthing these techniques - this followed by many artists of the time The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise - Masaccio, Brancacci Chapel Florence inside church of Santa Maria del Carmine c. 1427, fresco • Masaccio created 3D look • linear perspective used • bodies have “weight” to them • effects of linear perspective in work of art • expresses emotion and feelings of Adam and Eve - shame - not seen before • worked in collaboration of colleague • one of earliest examples of collaboration between artists and different styles within same site (Chapel), accepted by Patron Ghent Altarpiece, Adoration of the Mysic Lamb - Jan and Hubert can Eyck, 1432, oil on panel, Cathedral of St. Bavo, Ghent • importance of cathedrals with works of art • altarpiece: work of art placed on top of an altar • generally would appear closed • on special occasions (feasts, celebrations) the altarpiece would be opened, will discuss why • another collaboration between artists • outside: St John Baptist, St John Evangelist in middle, monochromatic statued figures flanked by two figures 1 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • inside: “explosion of colours”, Mary, St John the Baptist, Adam and Eve at edge (notice difference between Masaccio, no inner emotions expressed) • oil on panel: very specific technique, invented in the North, allowing artists to replicate in vivid manner nature/realities of subject The Martyrdom of St. Sebastion, South Germany, 1470-75/Martyrdom of St. Sebastion, 1470-75, coloured wood cut (printmaking) • style is crude, not refined or sophisticated • includes tet • beginning of printmaking, changing landscape of Renaissance and whole culture Leonardo, The Virgin of the Rocks, ca. 1485, oil on wood panel • seems simplistic, but topic of painting is still under debate • two copies of same subject • schemata technique Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, vault fresco, ca. 1508-12 • wanted to do it by himself Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, ca. 1510-11, right lunette The School of Athens • originally private chambers of Pope Julius II • not rooms meant to be seen by the general public • themes Pope wanted Raphael to address • Pope was not only acting as spiritual figure, but also political at this time (temporal/political power) • manifestation of temporal/political Michelangelo, Last Judgment, 1536-41, fresco • very unusual altarpiece • not framed or contained • raised many questions • substituted previous altarpiece on wall • in olden days priests would face wall, pieces of art, will explore dynamic between priest and reception of art Jan Gossaert, St. Luke Drawing the Virgin Mary, 1520, oil on panel • Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith beheading Holofernes, ca. 1620 • beginning of time where Renaissance turns into Baroque period 2 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture WEEK TWO September 17, 2f012 Brunelleschi and Masaccio: the Method of Linear Perspective • Masathio and Brunelleschi were the major protagonists of art and architecture in 15 Century Cathedral of Florence • early 15 Century was an era of peace and prosperity in Florence • name “cathedral” comes from Latin word for Bishop “cathedra” and a cathedral is the Church where the Bishop • Cathedrals usually connected with baptistry and Bishop’s palace - most important Church of city • most of Cathedral of Florence was constructed in the 13 Century, constructed for almost a century th • in 15 Century centre of Church needed to be vaulted, but the workers did not have the capacity to complete this goal, until Brunelleschi (a sculptor, not a painter) came up with a solution • solution: double shelled structure with areas allowing light in and inside structure consisting of ribs and rings to support the outer shell, sustaining the vast vaulted ceiling • internal and external ribs, dividing weight of heavy masonry • major innovation - kind of prototype for vaulting huge areas done with architectural and economic integrity • Antonio Manetti’s wrote about life of Brunelleschi, giving us an answer of how Brunelleschi came up with a solution to the dome problem • “Brunelleschi decided to explore the Ancients’ highly refined method of building and their use of harmonious proportions in order to find out how all these things could be properly executed without great difficulty and expense...He went to see ancient buildings [in Rome]...Which had different types of vaults, and studied the method of centering the vaults and the other systems of support” • what could be the model to solve this problem? Brunelleschi most likely studied the dome of the Pantheon • this method was common for the Renaissance, using ideals of antiquity to reinvent and solve modern problems • created a kind of blueprint solution - a dome that could be replicated by others • • solution used geometrical model within the Church to create proportions throughout the dome • done by measuring square of centre of cross of the church • measurement helped make harmonious height of the dome and elevate it in a beautiful as well as architecturally sound way • done using geometry, repetition of the same unit of measurement 3 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • also an important because he solved a problem that had slowed architects for a century, he was commissioned by many to create and design other buildings • was seen by community as a kind of genius Foundling Hospital • designed not only religious institutions, but civic institutions • charitable institution • contemporary Florentine citizens saw Brunelleschi’s working on the Foundling Hospital as a sort of charitable act - would have helped his reputation? • all hospitals were built with a long loggia, allowing poor to stay there before they were admitted into the hospital • created practical but also beautiful architecture • re-imagined what could be done architecturally • by studying antiquity, he could give a loggia a kind of elegance and practical use which was not seen before • details were Classical • adopted Corinthian model of columns • cornice that just frames the arcade, not made of expensive stone, but of local sandstone, although it is not expensive it still creates colour contrast that is effective • looked to antiquity not only in the grand scheme of architecture, but also in the details • also used geometrical module in this piece as well - adds to order and harmony of the building • repeating an ancient model in a new way • glazed terracotta details added later • this technique developed by Andrea dell Robbia • durable, but visually pleasing as well • special way to treat the teracotta • these additions were not and imposition on Bruenelleschi’s original design - intended to have these medallions, but they were not commissioned immediately Church of San Lorenzo • church close to the Medici palace • church built due to the money the Medici donated • wanted their parish church to be a relevant space • in order to achieve this, got Brunelleschi to intervene in a church that had already been constructed • Brunelleschi intervened in the nave • wanted to divide up the space creating a sequence of arcades that were similar to the Foundling Hospital, same idea • still using the geometrical module as sequence • used grey stone set against the white wall of the Church • simple, but • main thing that this arcade does 4 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • allows light in • divides space of the nave • give sense of harmony and symmetry of San Lorenzo • Old Sacistry • founded by Giovanni di Medici • space originally used as burial space for members of the Medici family, had a very specific purpose • basically a permutation of the same module as was used in the nave • used same colours; grey sandstone against white walls • similar shape to whole church on inside with • give sense of spacial order and unity in effective manner • midterm comparison: same architect, same building, two different spaces, church sapce, name, old sacistry used as funerary chapel but constructed according to same geometrical module as the nave with arcades Palazzo Medici-Riccardi • across street of San Lorenzo Church • not architecture built by design that was done by Brunelleschi, but di Bartolomeo, a close follower of Brunelleschi • supplied project for this building, but Medici was too greandeuse and didn’t accept this plan, but followed instead the plan from Michelozzo • important to note this palazzo (private living space of Medici), follows same rules of order, harmony, and unity that Brunelleschi had devised for contemporary architecture (his own style?) th • in 15 Century ground floor where large arches were, were open, much like a loggia - used for Medici business • Medici were bankers, but there were no banks separate, so all transactions were done within that first floor • functioned well because it was open, but covered • arches walled up and windows made according to design by Michelangelo • notice masonry • first floor had very rustic bricks, compared to second and third floor which got progressively more smooth • typical of 15 Century Florentine architecture that Masaccio also picked up in his own paintings • comparison: solution of major architectural problem in religious building vs. perfected arcades at the Foundling hospital - two major buildings of Florence constructed by Brunelleschi Trinity, Masaccio - fresco, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence - Lenzi family • “Masaccio always followed as best as he could in the footsteps of Brunelleschi and Donatello even though he worked in a different medium...” from Vasari’s Life of Masaccio, 1568 • Vasari recognized as Father of History of Renaissance art 5 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • very important primary source for contemporary historians to trace and analyze Renaissance art • very short career, at most 6-8 years long • changed history of painting in Renaissance Florence - highly influential regardless of how short his career can be documented • fresco • made of pigments that are diluted with water applied on freshly laid plaster • once dried, combine together into fresco • usually used for large surfaces in churches to decorate • Masaccio created “cartoon” of drawing which is transferred onto the wall • creates hole along contours of painting and uses charcoal to perforate through page and transfer drawing onto fresh plaster • 3 figures • Jesus Christ, Holy Spirit, God the Father • below is Virgin Mary and John the Evangelist • below that is the two Lenzi donors • below is skeleton • complicated iconography • looked at a painted chapel • looking to create 3D setting on a 2D surface - chapel • different registers • donors • Madonna and John • primitive divine figures set in the vault • looking at a space that recedes into the background • donors seeming as if they are at the same level as the viewer • further back are Madonna and John, then the divine • painting is a reminder that death is eminent and our bodies will turn into this kind of skeleton - invitation to do good work and redeem ourselves, Lenzi donors praying and because of that are closer to the Crucifixion and God? • creates a kind of illusion that there is a continuation between the real space of the viewer and the divine space - sense of recession • achieved this through linear and atmospheric perspective • linear perspective apparently developed by Brunelleschi and shared with his colleagues - Masaccio being the first person who really applied this to his work • Lenzi family are horizon or painting, but remarkable because things go beyond the horizon, instead of using more simplified one-point perspective with right angle horizon and viewpoint • vanishing point is at centre of Lenzi members with orthogonals branching up to Jesus Christ and to vaulted ceiling, which also recedes into the background - more complicated than other paintings with linear perspective of the time • but used atmospheric perspective in the vault to make it seem to recede further Example: The Delivery of Keys to St Peter, Perugino 6 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • imagine fusion of real space in which we are and painted spaced which exists in front of us - fusion of these spaces • to see the painted space as a continuation of the real space that we occupy • the three dimensionality must be transferred through geometrical rules into the painted surface, hard feat to accomplish • this example is much later in the 15 Century, so this painting is a refined version of linear perspective • using orthogonals as a measurement of space • architecture creates horizon • linear perspected allowed artists to create the real and the painted - as well as a narrative with protagonists in foreground and architecture in the background • allowed artists to create paints that reflected more the reality of life Sant’ Anna Metterza, Masaccio and Masolino • common in the Renaissance for artists to take on major commissions as a team • altarpiece • two artists working in two different styles • revolutionary style of Masaccio is recognizable in Madonna and the Child - sense of volume of Madonna, physicality • Saint Anne is almost just a decorative figure, not as much body • Masolino still working in a late Gothic style - rendering surfaces in pneumatic way, but not the physicality of the body • creates a stark contrast between the figures, makes the Madonna stand out Branacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence - Masaccio and Masolino • very significant chapel that duo painted together in late 1520s • altar, altarpieces, walls decorated with frescoes • light source - window • Masaccio, in doing his frescoes, took into consideration the actual light source • fused real space and frescoes together • seems as if all the shadows and real light are coming in direction that is depicted in the paintings • no other artists had sensitivity to think about how to treat the space in a way that would fuse the rational and the fictional worlds • church founded by the Carmelites, patron being Felice Branacci • bought the chapel to transform into moselium for his family • worked with Pietro Brancacci, patron Saint of Pietro Brancacci St. Peter, patron wanted to be honoured hence... • these frescoes are really narratives of St. Peter, honouring the patron • major restoration of 1980 removed all dirt on surface of walls • see brilliant colours and true beauty of frescoes • two scenes paired together at the entrance of the chapel • Masolino’s Temptation vs. Masaccio’s Expulsion of Adam and Even from Paradise • can see the very different approaches that each artist had • Masolino 7 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • idealized bodies, set against dark background • set against space we cannot measure • cannot perceive these figures as two real bodies • surreal figures • Masaccio • puts them in a setting where space can be measured • depicted as two real bodies, can see the shadow, bodies have weight, exist as we do - once again fusing reality with fiction • using real light source in painting again, suggesting real light is actually hitting these two figures • participants of the moment, feeling the shame of their actions - Eve trying to cover her nudity, Adam covering his face, both showing agony • participant of the emotions that humans experience, unlike Masolino’s very surreal figures that are completely unlike normal human beings • why is there not definition of the physical reality of Adam and Eve? • have to remember that there have been several restorations of these paintings • pigments and colours dried together • could have been done on top of dry plaster, as the trees were done - asecco? • these details could easily be lost during restoration, lack of intensity - are the colours powdered? and then become liquid when mixed with water? • Tribute Money • proof that linear perspective allows artists to create narratives with this technique • story goes that Jesus was asked if he was to pay the Jewish Temple tax, orders Peter to get first fish from stream and Peter finds coin worth twice tax amount in mouth of the fish • narrative has more than one part, more than one time is being shown at once - Peter is in the foreground, then fishing, then giving money to tax person • can see the architecture painted is close to Brunelleschi’s own, with a loggia, th definitely typical of early 15 Century Florence • contrast to Masolino and Gothic style - figures are not engaging in any sort of narrative, just there to look at • above Peter and tax collector is open windows, opened different amounts • allows religious story to be actualized in 15 Century Florentine setting • adds to the space as a whole, creating even more of a sense of reality than before • St Peter healing with his shadow • not exactly sure whether this was a duo, but is assumed to be for our sake • scene itself is set in the reality of 15 Century florence - rustic style and setting • light source still coming from natural light source amplifying rational characteristics 8 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • Masaccio created new way of narrating stories using linear perspective and 15 th Century motifs of Florence • comparison between two st Peters • works done by same artists in same church • fresco • new way of narrating stories by constructing credible measurable space and inserting figures with their own reality and own physicality • in narratives usually a sense to go from centre, then to left, and finally to right • viewer in early 15 Century would have known stories of St Peter, being the main apostle, and would know strategies to look at painting as a painted space • rarely ever more than 3 episodes in one painting 9 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture WEEK THREE September 24, 2012 th Ghiberti, Donatello and the Art of Sculpture in 15 c. Italy • Florence was major artistic centre in Italy - most “artistic inventions” happened in Florence at this time Baptistery of San Giovanni (St. John) of Florence • building used for baptism of community members, important religious site • St. John the Baptist baptized Christ, hence baptisteries being dedicated to St. John • building probably rounded in 4 c. then renovated in 11 and 13 centuries • octagonal building • early 15 c.: religious authorities and city authorities joined forces to decorate the building - wanting tothecorate external doors especially • very beginning of 15 c. • competition between Brunelleschi and Ghiberti • authorities asked competitors to produce story of their choice (story from Old Testament) • authorities also decided what frame of work - quadri-form • Ghiberti wins competition • able to produce own scene as one single entity, showing judges major technical innovation (treating bronze and figures as one entity) - new technique • competition was so crucial because this was Ghiberti’s break into “fame” in artistic community in Florence • Ghiberti had to maintain quadri-form frame on Baptistery doors • Baptism of Christ • St. John baptizing Christ on right with Christ in the middle • linear perspective not used exclusively - space cannot be measured • angels on left • 3-dimensionality of figures is clear • Gates of Paradise • selected to do second commission after doing such a good job on first doors where he won competition • framing of panels allowed for easy linear perspective use • difference between first and second doors: • difference in materials used • first: bronze with gilded areas (some golden areas) • second: gilded bronze - entire surface enriched visually - “sense of splendor” • what contemporaries wanted to see in a work of art: • political and city authorities were deeply involved in embellishment of religious site 10 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • Leonardo Bruni “it is my opinion that...the stories of the new doors...Should mainly have two qualities: one, that they should show splendor and the other that they should have significance...” • Creation of Adam and Eve (second doors) 1425-1452 • Haines’s reading gives us sense of importance of documentation of • several scenes within one panel • centre has creation of Eve, emerging from Adam • lower left foreground: creation of Adam, still attached to the earth • lower right side: progenitors after being banished from paradise, can see door • this panel also is very clear example of linear perspective • Jacob and Esau • system of linear perspective even more clear due to architecture in the background - recede into the distance • tiles of the pavement are clear orthogonal lines Orsanmichele • in early 15 century was a hybrid building; served as place where guilds could be represented • space meant to be used as grain market • storage of grain on second and third floor • inside of main floor ended up being a Church dedicated to tabernacle of miracle- working image of Virgin and Child • guilds asked to decorate niches with either painted image of patron saint of sculpture, issued in 1339 • not until the early 15 century that actual piece of legislation stating each guild had 10 years to complete decoration or they would lose the right to their tabernacle • aesthetic evaluation • Ghiberti: St. John the Baptist for Calimala, the wool makers’ guild • depicted in fine fabrics, basically an ad for the Calimala guild • base treated in simple way, with decorative motif • Nanni di Banco: Four Crowned Saints, for stonecarvers/woodworkers’ guild • also member of this guild, sense of pride in taking on this commission • different from others in way that there are 4 patron saints, not one • according to tradition, asked by Roman emperor to produce pagan figure and thus executed • in order to accomodate small space for four figures, Banco had to carve stone and allow for two outside saints to be outside of tabernacle frame • base different as well: for first time became place for narrative: this having several activities which sculptors perform • Donatello: St. George for Armorers’ guild, marble • statue not so much outstanding part of tabernacle, but the basement • basements became place for narrative - this one being St. George slaying dragon and saving princess • marble carved, treated, and coloured 11 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • does not look like marble, looks like wax, maleable - almost invited viewers to want to touch - transformation of medium • this St. George became a prototype for male beauty in Florence throughout 15 and 16 .h • basement: • schiaccito (squashed relief) - new technique invented by Donatello and imitated by other artists • uses linear perspective using arcades on one side and cave of dragon on the other • • Donatello impressions • Orsanmichele basement - carved very little into it, very close to the surface of block of marble - base relief - re-inventing the use of the basement, note that it is a small space • singing galleries • block of marble is deeply impressed and there is much more 3dimensionality as is common in sculpture - tended to use this technique throughout his career as opposed to the other one Donatello David (bronze) ·      figure from old testament ·      stature that can be looked at in the round ·      sculpture removed from previous medieval idea of niches, relief and wall sculpture all with only one view point ·      one of the earliest examples of looking back to the Thorn Puller ·      both are bronze, youth, in the round, nude ·      to produce new models for their time artist would go back to classical model of ancient sculpture ·      biblical figure of the old testament depicted as beautiful, young, nude ·      biblical figures were not depicted as nude before this ·      Why is he nude? Many theories 1. Looking back to antiquity 2. They wanted a beautiful young figure 3. Placed in the Michelozzo Medici Palace o Florence was in transition from being a republic to a government built around the Medici family o Political personification of God’s approval of the Medici family who were now ruling o The Medici apposed tyranny (defeat of Goliath) o But why nude? Boy -> man; maturity, taking responsibility 12 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture ·      Donatello reinvents the sculpture and nude in the round in a contemporary context Donatello - Cantoria (singing galleries) (Part of the Florence Cathedral) ·      Commissioned to go above the north Sacristy door ·      Organized the decoration into a continued frieze separated by colonnades o Colonnades -> Recreation of ancient sarcophagi Luca della Robbia – Cantoria (Part of the Florence Cathedral) ·      Framed narrative in different panels separate by pilasters ·      Carved in the song lyrics from which the scene comes from Compare: Cantoria: Donatello vs. Luca della Robbia ·      Donatello – more freedom, interaction between figures, continuation of panels ·      Della Robbia – more organized, linear ·      Both are deeply carved, heavily laden with figures, marble Donatello – Equestrian Monument (Padua City) ·      Padua hired a foreign artist, Donatello o Shows the artistic achievement of Donatello in Florence and Florence itself ·      Florentine artists were asked to produce works out of their city as the fame of Florence grew ·      One of the first works to be placed outside since antiquity ·      Based on antiquity o Inspired by Emperor Marcus Aurelius (Equestrian Statue) ·      Donatello’s subject is not an Emperor but simply a man of the army o He portrayed the subject as a hero – army garbs, sword, idealized face of a hero st ·      1 equestrian monument produced since antiquity o medieval art had not advanced far enough technically to portray such a complex subject as horse and rider • 13 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture WEEK FOUR October 1, 2012 Altarpieces • altar must be consecrated, usually happens when Church is consecrated when first opened or built • takes a patron saint • altar is place where Priest gives mass and performs Eucharist • intimate relationship between priest and altarpiece, would have had back to audience, facing the altarpiece - important th th • don’t know why altarpieces began to be used - around late 14 early 15 century they began to gain popularity • perhaps new devotion promoted by religious orders (Franciscans and Dominicans for example) • first examples of altarpieces were found in Churches of religious orders - important to note this is just a hypothesis The Annunciation - Workshop of the Master of Flemalle • Annunciation was the moment when the angel Gabrielle announces that Mary will be the mother of Christ • centre panel: suggested that Mary is not fully aware of angel’s arrival in the room - absorbed in her reading of the bible, thus, not aware yet that she will be serving as the mother of Christ • left panel: can see the donors just outside of the room which is depicted in the central panel • vision that the donors may have is a common occurrence in Nederlandish art, not common in Italian art of the 15 Century • right panel: St. Joseph is seen doing carpentry work JAN VAN EYCK Ghent Altarpiece: Adoration of the Mystic Lamb - Jan and Hubert van Eyck • open • representation of God the father surrounded by the Virgin and John the Baptist, then angels, then Adam and Eve • lower centre: adoration of the mystic lamb • lamb has hole in its chest where blood is collected in chalice in bottom • apostles in adjacent panels on right, on left pagan figures that lived before Christ but were converted to Christianity • vertical line between God the Father and the Mystic Lamb - full representation of Christianity - peopheny? • this scene/subject matter must have been suggested by a theologian - scene coming from the last book of the New Testament • closed • iconography is very simple, colours muted in comparison to when it is open 14 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • perhaps because altarpiece • painting that is imitating sculptures of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist as well as the two donors; husband and wife • on upper register is the Annunciation • inscription on lower frame: “The painter Hubert van Eyck, greater than whom no one was found, began [this work]; and jan, his brother, second in art, having carried through the task at the expense of Jodocus Vys, invites you by this verse, on the six of May, to look at what has been done.” • inscription may not be authentic • mentions two painters: Hubert van Eyck as the main painter and Jan as finishing the painting - why there is doubt among art historians because Hubert has no other paintings with his name or record of him painting them • • Jan van Eyck recognized as using new medium, oil, in painting oil painting • colours were diluted in oil, giving fluidity to colours and can be applied to surface of panel in many different layers, unlike the impasto that was used in the tempera where only one or two different layers could be done • several advantages related: • given fluidity, artists able to make corrections/changes as work progressed - important to note - using your finger • colours more vivid and “brilliant” because of layering (layering opposite on others to foil each other) • natural light enhances the translucency of the paint to create a more vivid colour scheme • can paint more minute elements of a composition as well as enhance natural quality of painting The Arnolfini Portrait - Jan van Eyck • puzzle, like many other paintings of this time, is still a mystery, but there are theories • wedding celebration • problems with this possibility - promise taking place in a domestic setting, not a Church, which was status-quo then • wedding took place in 1447, not 1434 as the painting is dated • she is pregnant before the wedding, perhaps reason why it is in a domestic location • betrothal • celebration of a future union of these figures • funerary remembrance of previous wife • great attention to detail and reality, lots of symbolism within the painting • symbolism: • dog could be representative of fidelity, as dogs are loyal 15 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • crystal chain with beads and scenes around mirror depicting the passion of Christ allude to the piety of the couple • setting: bedroom of couple • mirror: • above mirror there is an inscrption “Jan van Eyck was here, 1434” giving art historians description of when painting was done and by who, helpful, BUT • very unusual inscription, painters would have normally written that it was made by them, not witnessed • can be seen in detail of the mirror - visible that you can see two other figures other than the couple, perhaps “witnesses” to promise of union of couple, one being van Eyck • iconography and interpretation is a puzzle, but the mirror and mirroring effect is th one of the most advanced pictorial elements in 15 Century art - high level of expertise - allowed because of this new oil painting technique, forgiving to detail, allowing to use small brush Portrait of a Man in a Red Turban - Jan van Eyck • self portrait? • signed and date don frame; also motto in Greek letters “As I can (but not as I would).” • inscription as anagram for van Eyck’s name • something viewers would not have immediately recognized • perhaps trying to say that it is a self-portrait, but trying to make it more vague to audience that it is so Maddonna with Canon George van der Paele, St George and St Donatian - Jan van Eyck 1436 • eye glasses that were used to read and magnify the text in hands of Canon George • first time that spectacles were used in 15 Century painting • people didn’t like to be seen with glasses • unusual, so why? • as if Canon has stopped reading for a moment • symbolic of fact that as they magnify, they could be metaphor for role of Virgin - magnification of the Virgin, made possible for Christ to become a human being • domestic setting, again - is this a trend for van Eyck? Madonna in a Church - Jan van Eyck • Virgin and Child in a church, which is an unusual depiction of the two icons • small painting = for private devotion • represents Virgin within the Church and no more in a domestic setting which is common to van Eyck’s previous trends • emphasizes Virgin’s role as mother of Christ, but now stands for Church itself - Church as Virgin, inscribed together - important theological argument in the 15 th Century • light and translucent effect of the paint, lots of refraction of light 16 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • small painting means a very meticulous and detailed production of the painting ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN Deposition - Rogier van der Weyden • all protagonists are somewhat aligned in foreground of painting, seeming to rest of wooden background • seems as if they are entering viewers’ space • foreground full of the ten figures • with Rogier there is often an emphasis and sentiments in emotion of figures • sober mood • figures dressed in contemporary clothing • use of oil medium allowed Rogier van de Weyden to give full brilliant effect to colour which is one of most impressive features in that painting St Luke Drawing the Virgin and Child - Rogier van der Weyden • Byzantine legend (c. 6 Century) that the Madonna and Child appeared to St Luke so he could pass on their image to other Christians • interesting setting • can see outside to city: figures and canal • integration between religious subject matter and naturalistic approach that many painters were attempting at the time, integration of the city - two worlds coming together Portrait of a Lady - Rogier van der Weyden • same technique as van Eyck’s in his portrait of a man - allowed to render most realistic details of the figures incl intensity in the faces • man looks out at audience, woman more introverted looking down • hands signal moment of tension or preoccupation - clasped together SECOND GENERATION A Goldsmith in his Shop - Petrius Christius • potential customers interested in products he sells - rings and broaches around shop • light • refraction of light on silver objects on shelves • windows • light is coming from the door, which you can tell from the mirror which shows that the outside is in the direction • mirror • located on the table • reflects outside, what is behind what can be seen by the viewer • reflects city and two people standing outside the shop • dialogue between two spheres - more *private, religious vs. public, civic* 17 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • oil painting technique allowed for lumistic and atmospheric effect of painting itself Portinari Altarpiece - Hugo van der Goes • open • lighting and atmospheric effect mixed with Italian tradition • importance: painting produced in Netherlandish artistic tradition that reached Florence and made huge impression in Florence • taken aback by the oil painting technique, did not possess technique skills to work with such fluid paint • taught Italian artists to paint more details • thus new chapter in history of art • unity between the scenes • landscape offers continuity across different panels • Nativity of Christ and Adoration of Shepherds (central panel) • baby Christ on ground, not usual depiction • from very time that he was born and he became human there were signs of his divine nature • wheat and flowers symbols to incarnation of Christ and role of Christ as our saviour • sent to Florence purposely - sense of space and 3-dimensionality is not obtained through system of linear perspective (no orthogonals, space not measurable), thus they exist in a space that the viewer cannot measure or become part of • Netherlandish art: oil paint and atmospheric perspective Portraits of Tommaso Portinari and Maria Portinari (two different pieces) • couples behind the Portinari altarpiece Diptych of Maaren van Nieuwenhove - Hans Memling • diptych: two panels, genre popular in Netherlandish art, usually portable (small dimensions) and taken with people while travelling • on left: Madonna and Child, almost entering into viewers space - domestic setting with city in background comparison between Arnolfini and Portinari altarpiece • Jan working for Italian patron, but within Netherlands for home in Netherlands, not meant to go to Italy, like other • same technique, mirroring effects • atmostpheric perspective • Arnolfini tells us beginning of Italians being interested in Flemish art • Italian patron sending to Flemish to get altarpiece and have it brought back comparison between adoration of lamb altarpiece and • before, seen as window which we are seeing through to • fusion between real space and painted space achieved through system of linear perspective constructing geometrical and measurable space 18 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • rational construction of linear space to connect with actual space, integrating them together and transporting the viewer into the scene of painting - as well make figures very 3dimensional and life-size • technical innovation: oil painting technique • several layers allowed artists to create naturalistic effect • lighting, mirroring, natural • unity of setting not through measurable space but atmospheric - main difference • allows for more depth of a landscape, rather than in one-point perspective where it is at a 90 degree angle with the viewer th • ear;y 15 Century Italians didn’t have the technical skills that the artists in the Netherlands did • Portinari altarpiece is point at which these two skills mix together 19 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture WEEK SIX October 15, 2012 PRINTMAKING IN RENAISSANCE EUROPE: MAKING MULTIPLE COPIES; PRINT TECHNOLOGY • print-making developed in the Renaissance • mechanical reproduction of a work of art - unique work of art with print, not anymore, now have multiples • coloured wood cuts • ex. The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian • ex. Manuscript with St. Christopher, 1450 - inscription: “Whenever you look at the face of St. Christopher, you will not die a terrible death that day.” • printmaking with wood cut and blocks • developed around mid 15 Cth • meant prints were created out of block of wood • artist engraved surface of block of wood to create a design • once design was created, wood block covered in ink, and then piece of paper would be pressed on top to impress the image but in reverse • print could later be coloured • generally used for production of books • very important that printmaking was applied to production of books becuase it allowed large scale selling of literature with many copies - rather than being copied by hand by monks • usually displayed image and text • lines simple • woodcuts with prayers served to enhance prayers/meditation for private citizens • Petrus Christus, Portrait of a Female Donor and Portrait of a Male Donor, ca. 1455 • printmaking as connected to religious piety • two figures in prayer in their private domestic setting • behind female: on wall there is a coloured woodcut • subject of the woodcut is recognized as St. Elizabeth • woodcut almost as substitution for painting, cheaper than other works of art • image more about piety of the couple and woodcut as way to enhance private domestic piety • new that someone could pray in their own private space, read the bible and not attend temple or church • prints circulated in the Renaissance not among poor people, but among wealthy citizens • woodcuts also used in monasteries • Sister Regula’s Life of Christ, 1449 • 125 folios, eighteen woodcuts and 13 miniatures 20 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • nun inserted woodcuts and decided what should be depicted and put them into text • images had to be present in the text, text not enough on its own • coloured woodcut, Annunciation • prints could be produced in basically any size - flexibility in the medium also new within the Renaissance • usually with other medium used thus far, there were constraints to size • woodcuts were also portable and circulated • not seen in other mediums (paintings, sculpture, frescoes) usually stayed where patron who had it issued unless there was a special event • with circulation, certain iconographies had to be mastered because they became known to larger audiences and define iconography of image • architecture, painting, sculpture commissioned for patrons only • prints sold on the market without a patron • instead of having one person contributing to piece of work there were multiple (artist, woodcutter, printer) who all gained revenue • Nuremberg Chronicle • book that narrates history of city, which included maps of city as well as images to display history • ex. Ptolemaic plan of the world • Martin Schongauer, Demons tormenting St. Anthony, ca. 1480-90 • engraving is obtained out of a metal plate (usually copper), rather than wood from a woodblock/cut • artist has burine, specific tool, to engrave surface of the copper plate • important that the ink goes into the lines, because the surface is then wiped clean • next by pressing copper plate with paper on top under a press, creates the print engraving • lines obtained with woodcut usually more deep and thicker • lines obtained from an engraving could be more pictorial, lines could display more detail, refined • engravings used for circulation and exchange between artists • this example selected because it was copied by the young Michelangelo • Michelangelo Buonarroti, Demons Tormenting St. Anthony ca. 1487-88 • important because • circulation of engravings serve as models for artists - for learning • prints to enhance art of painting - by making copy Michelangelo was enhancing own art out of print, added colours and background details • good example of the role of prints in the Renaissance, how they were developed and models for other artists • Albrecht Duerer, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse 1497-98 • key figure of German Renaissance • wrote about proportion and art of painting • travelled to Italy • wanted to enhance the art of printing, more than painting • religious iconography 21 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • artists usually trained first in woodcut printing, because it is “easier” than engraving printmaking • had series of woodcuts from the Apocalypse with passages of the book of Revelation • printed both in Latin and in German • instead of having figures align with one another, has them in a kind of unity • horsemen with bow: personification of conquest • horsemen with sword: personification of war • horsemen with scale: personification of plug/flug ( • horsemen with sick horse: personification of sickness • trample on humanity • four allegorical figures • notice monogram for the artist in the bottom centre: AD • Duerer, Presentatino of Christ in the Temple 1505 (woodcut) vs. Marcantonio Raimondi, Presentation of Christ in the Temple 1505 (engraving) • art historians can tell artist from different mediums used • subject exactly the same, but Duerers monogram in both works • Marcantonio went to Venice and saw Flemish artists who had prints which he admired, wanted to invest money in buying prints and then copied these prints • Marcantonio wanted to make profit • Duerer had knowledge of Marcantonio’s plagiarism • Duerer travels to Venice and petitions the gov’t to recognize that he was the artist of these works of art and they should not have been copied and circulated as his own works • Duerer’s works of art as his own property for inventing the subject • Venetian gov’t decides Marcantonio can copy Duerers works, but he could not add Duerer’s monogram • Duerer had obtained a privelege in being able to circulate his prints - permission to circulate their works in any given city in Europe • Duerer, Joachim and Anne meeting at the Golden Gate ca. 1505 (woodcut) vs. Marcantonio, Joachim and Anne meeting at the Golden Gate, 1505 (engraving) • less evident that it is an exact copy because gate has been changed, but same idea • some woodcuts could be reused • seems the Duerer only made the design, not the actually design • probably had a talented woodcutter • Raimondi copies all of Duerer’s works • Duerer, Self-Portrait. 1500 • self-presentation as the artist as god • comparte to Icon of Christ, 6 C, Monastery of St. Catherine, Sinai • artistic creator that has divine power of creation • using, visually, representation of Christ to recreate his own image • Duerer so offended when Raimondi copies his works because he hold such a high view of himself • intense, direct, gaze 22 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • Duerer, Feast of the Rose Garlands, 1506 • comes to Venice and has opportunity to work for an Italian audience • depicition of the landscape makes it evident that it is by a German artist, Italian artists at the time did not have the ability to produce this • Venetian colours • centre of image: Madonna and child with rosary, roasry given to Pope (ecclesiastical power) facing the imperial authority • union between the church and the state - Roman-Christian-German Empire • Duerer, Adam and Eve 1504, engraving • usual because the symbols Duerer adds to simple biblical subject • tree of knowledge is tall, skinny tree, cannot see top of it • snake entwined in tree trying to offer apple to Adam and Eve • trees in background symbolize tree of life • Adam holding onto branch with plaque: inscription in Latin says that work is done by Albrect Duerer of Nuremberg - more evidence that he had high views of himself • animals: cat, elk, rabbit, fox - stand for four temperaments • fox: flagmatic • rabbit: pleasure, lust • cat: anger, choleric • elk: melancholy, depression • Adam and Eve here modern work of art with symbolic images depicting Medieval imagery • compare to Apollo Belvedere, 320 BCE and Medici Venus, 2 ndBCE • can see that he was exposed to Italian art and influenced as well • Adam and Eve look very much like the two examples stated above • Duerer, Adam and Eve 1507 • maintains same style of Adam and Eve as he had in the engraving • gives figures more animation/energy • removes symbolism • Duerer, Four Apostles, 1525 • until about 1520-25 Roman Catholic church was the only Catholic Church of Europe • early 1600s were reformations with critique to Catholic Church, cardinals, fact that they promoted salvation through attending Chruch alone - while Lutherans were promoting Christianity through faith alone in private settings • Lutherans did not need priests or preachers • Roman Catholic Church defends its role • Lutheran Protestant Germans become separate from the Roman Empire • evident in this painting • Roman apostle is usually first apostle, St. Peter (St. Peter’s basilica, mother of all the Churches) • so usually St. Peter has prominence • but in this painting he is behind St. John the Evangelist, reading - which is what the Protestants were promoting (clever! • bible says in the beginning there was the word 23 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • on right side there is St. Paul (important for Protestants) wrote lots of letters, before St. Mark • kind of new way of presenting saints which has not been seen before, or in a way that Roman Catholic Church would have commissioned Midterm • for image comparison, you will be shown two images at a time • first identify them (artists, subjects) then you will write an essay comparing and contrasting them in terms of their makers; style; subject matter • 6 comparisons= 10 minutes each=12 points each=72 pointes total • for single image essay first you idneify image (artists;subjects) and then you will write an essay discussing the formal qualities of the works of art and architecture in question • 4 single images=7minutes each=7 points each=28 points total • works presented in class - from beginning (WEEK 2) until midterm - determine what will appear on mid-term exam on October 22 • all images on FADIS • oil glazes over tempera in north 24 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture WEEK EIGHT October 29, 2012 The Genius of Leonardo • key artist in the High Renaissance • Leonardo is first artist in Vasari’s history or artists • founder of High Renaissance • since Vasari’s history, Leonardo’s oeuvre has been considered basic model for High Renaissance • wrote many treatises, not only about painting, but many other things that were mechanical as well as natural studies Andrea del Verrocchio and workshop, completed by Leonardo, Baptism of Christi, 1468-77, oil on wood, Florence, Uffizi • St. John the Baptist baptizing Christ, set within typical setting • Leonardo painting the angel on the left and painted it while in training • Verrocchio’s workshop mainly produced sculpture, not paintings, but workshops in general were places of production - could have specific excellence, but produce in any medium • “...when Leonardo painted an angel who was holding some garments; and although he was bud a lad, he executed itin such manner than his angel was much better than the figure of Andrea.” from Vasari’s Life of Leonardo • although Leonardo was young and was being trained under Verrocchio you can see the very specific difference between his figures and his master’s • Verrocchio’s figures are very hard and cut • can see Leonardo’s style of softness and his charaterisctic use of colour Portrait of Ginevra de’Benci / Inscription “Virtutem format decorat” Beauty adorns virtue • juniper (ginepro) = Ginevra • portrait on one side, inscription on other • portrait not meant to be seen on a wall, meant to be seen in space where people could walk around and see the back of the painting • very new work of art, this style much more common in the North • continuation of Northern style being adapted by artists in the north • know who the sitter in the portrait is because she is set against a bush of Juniper which is a play on her name as well on the back juniper is again represented • inscription: portrait is manifestation of her inner virtues • this portrait shows the beginning of Leonardo’s characteristic techniques: • 1. chiaroscuro • sitter is in full light set against a dark background - chiaroscuro • one of the earliest examples of chiaroscuro • not fully developed, but starting to develop his style • 2. sfumato 25 FAH230 - Renaissance Art and Architecture • sitter is set against an atmospheric perspective, but through way of softening colours and blurring lines together instead of darkening lines • something Leonardo uses in all of his works that we know today • scholars have understood that painting on both sides was cut, probably a half body portrait • earliest descriptions talk about the woman’s hands and a 3/4 portrait set against juniper • scholars compare this to.... Verrocchio, Portrait of a Lady with Flowers • scholars often compare the way that Ginevra’s body language is to Verrocchio’s sculpture • serves as a sort of prototype for Leonardo to create a piece of work • looking off of a sculpture which is a frontal bust but this is not the case in Leonardo’s portrait • sitter is is 3/4 rotation, sense of movement Adoration of the Magi • last work of art Leonardo produced before going to Milan • not a finished oeuvre • Leonardo had done drawing and transferred drawing onto panel • began by laying dark colours onto painting • this is important because it gives light to how he would’ve created an oeuvre • would have painted darkest colours to lightest colours, doing similar colours at the same time • working within Florentine artistic tradition in which Adoration of the Magi was also depicted within frame (see Gentile da Fabriano’s version) • usually depicted as a kind of a parade with the Magi at the front • Virgin and Child set to one side usually to allow for other side to be parade • ruins in the back of
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