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FAH246 Lecture 2

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Jenny Purtle

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1 FAH246 - Lecture 2 Art Nouveau Art Nouveau characterized by the rapid change in styles. Pairs, Brussels and Vienna were the main centers of Art Nouveau at the time, where artists traded ideas. For instance, Klimt was inspired to create murals by artist Margaret MacDonald/Macintosh.Viennese artists broke away from standards and built themselves a place to exhibit there work.. WIKIPEDIA The Vienna Secession was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artistswho had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in theVienna Künstlerhaus.This movement included painters, sculptors, and architects.The first president of the Secessionwas Gustav Klimt. Its official magazinewas called Ver Sacrum. At this time, there is a displacement of one paradigm by another, and a sense of competition through the exchange of ideas. Should we see movements like Jugendstil and Art Nouveau as the end of the 19th C, or is it really the first 20th C style?They are displaced so rapidly, it beginsvery quickly to be a style from the past. Klimt It is typical of Klimt to have the lines/figures represent more than one thing in his works. His art isvery moody, and expresses a whole range of emotions. Jurisprudence, 1903-1907 | Oil study for ceiling painting, which was commissioned byVienna for 3 different faculties after the originals were destroyed in the war by the Nazis. The Kiss, 1907-08 | Oil and gold leaf on canvas. Painted in Jugendstil style. 2 ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA Jugendstil: artistic style that arose in Germany about the mid-1890s and continued through the first decade of the 20th century, deriving its name from the Munich magazine Die Jugend (“Youth”), which featured Art Nouveau designs.There are 2 phases: Before 1900, that is mainly floral in character, rooted in English Art Nouveau and Japanese arts and prints; and a more abstract phase, growing out of theViennesework of the Belgian-born architect and designer HenryVan deWelde. Schiele The Hermits, 1912 |We now see a transition from the decorative beauty of a painting likeThe Kiss, to paintings like these that are very dark. On the face of Schiele is a determinate expression, overturning the style of Jugendstil. Matisse Artists like Matisse and Picasso worked back and forth between painting and sculpting, often in the same day. Sculpture and painting at this time are working with one another. AlongsideVan Gogh, Cezanne, Seurat, and Gaugin, Matisse is considered to be one of the most influential artists of the 19th C. The Serf (1900-1903) | Just beforeThe Kiss ,deals with the direct expression of the 3D. Inspired by Rodin’s forcefulness, (despite their differences), having studied and seen his work in Paris. (See Rodin’s Balzac, 1898). It is rough, bold, and direct. Self-Portrait in Shirtsleeves (1900) | “Rolling up sleeves” as if getting ready to work, something quizzical and fleeting about facial expression.Very observant, and visually engaged with the world, before he would become the radical artist. The Back Series (1908-1931) | If observed in sequence, you can see the increasing simplification. Her form begins to straighten, and becomes vertical. There is no more curvature in the body. It is a rejection of the natural depiction in order to show what is essential of the form. The Dinner Table (1897) | In a way, very traditional. It is an expansion on still- life, which leaves room for the painter to exercise his talent.This painting was not receivedvery well - he wasn’t playing by the rules. Here, he picked up on 3 “Intimism,”, which is a type involving intimate, domesticated subject matter. Luxe, Calme etVolupté (1904-1905) |Working with Paul Signac about letting space between the pigments to be greater, with a more intense use of color. He combined a radical technique with domestic subject matter, which worked well for him.This painting was also inspired by a poem by Charles Baudelaire of the same title, repeated as a kind of incantation, evoking a sense of pleasure. It is a kind of bathing scene, with intimacy and domesticity, demonstrating no attempt at naturalism. Portrait de Derain 1905 | Radical portrait, Matisse and Signac were called the Fauves (wild beasts) by a critic.There is no optical mixing at all; primary colors are placed beside each other. As with sense of drama and direct presentation. Divides canvas into distinct colors, an effect borrowed fromVan Gogh. He repeats this technique in his portrait of his wife in Green Line, of the same year. Both depict a sense of drama. Funnily enough, this is coming from an artist who, only a few years later, said art should be a “comfortable armchair.” The Blue Nude (1907) |This piece succeeded at both attracting and repulsing people. It was captioned “Souvenir de Briska”. It was understood as exotic, rather than primitive in the eyes of the French. Matisse went to North Africa and saw a whole new environment that he would then transpose onto the female anatomy, twisting it in a way that reminds one of an African Mask. Though it is titled the blue nude, there is an expressive play of color of green on her legs.The response was that of shock, not uncommon to Matisse, who exhibited his artworks in North America as well.This bad reaction was especially true in North America when exhibited for the first time there. 4 Primitivism Definition: a belief in thevalue of what is simple and unsophisticated, expressed as a philosophy of life or through art or literature. Primitivism is innocent, and sexually free. However, there is in a way, still a colonialist attitude... or rather, a sense of superiority, in judging these other races and cultures. Many artists were also looking for the primitivism within their own societies.The primary version of Primitivism deals with the post- colonial empire, but this was not always so. Gauguin Self Portrait (1889) | Sees himself as a sanctified visionary of the future (note the halo). Vision after the Sermon (1903) |The space is divided by a tree; figures wear peasant head dresses of the time at some sort of religious gathering.There are two differentvisions of the same story of Jacob wrestling with the angel. One woman here has her eyes open as though she is actually seeing the struggle and the other has her eyes closed, looking for the inner vision. Gauguin sided with the latter, which happens with art: experiencing the outside world by looking inward.To compare,Van Gogh just preferred to depict an intensified reality. Spirit of the DeadWatching (1892) | Primitivism on the one hand was innocent in terms of contemporary European society.The primitive beliefs were not as rational as the European colonists view. Free sexually, Gauguin, who was a stockbroker, was notorious for this. He had a sense of superiority in judging all these other races and cultures. Many artists looked for primitivism within their own societies, for it wasn’t necessarily post-colonial; there is also children’s art, or even “Insane”-person art. AWestern nude Gauguin could have been looking at was Manet’s Olympia. WIKIPEDIA Spirit of the DeadWatching (Manao tupapau) is an 1892 oil on burlap canvas painting by Paul Gauguin, depicting a nudeTahitian girl lying on her stomach. An old woman is seated behind her.
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