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Lecture

oct 29th.docx

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Art
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FAH270H1
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all

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Exempla: as a model build for muslim prayers: mosque in damascus. One part of what was the complex: originally attached to a chapel: palatine chapel: because it was a palace mosque: a royal association. The site was a great site of an ancient roman temple. St john the baptist: holds his relic: his head. Up until the seventh century it was shared by christians and muslims. Head is preserved in the mosque. In contrast to early christian arc: these mosques were not just sites for important relig activity but also sites for learning. Where scholars had a literal space for their work. the great courtyard: transition zone from the city to the mosque, before worshippers move to the main space, holds micro buildings covered in domes, buildings connected with scientific discoverys like clocks, and astronomical stuff. And a treasury wiwth spolia columns raised up on its pillars is a windowless which was too symbollically hold the wealth of the empire. So the wealth wasn’t hidden away in the palace but it was there for all the ppl to see.architecture which was symbolic by the empire. The entrance portal leading into the mosque, so the façade has an extra story, three smaller arches encompassed with a large arch, ornamented by mosaics, like a kind of temple front, and on the façade in the mosaics are imagaes with vines, trees, flowers lrising up: presenting a heaven on earth as a collective space for believers. So you come in and on either sides there are aisles, three longitudinal spaces running off from the entrance, devided by columns, which support two series of arches, columns are spolias, the arches creates a space inside that the colume in the building not just flow laterally but also across the building, kind of equality of space: for liturgical practice of space for muslims, that the prayists are all equal, but there is a royal area distinguishing one other group. Sets a standard for other mosques: free-flow space in both directions. Also the idea of minerate: minerate of the bride by the entrance to the mosque. Important for the liturgy and urbanistically cuz it connects the mosque through hearing and physically to the urban landscape. Looks like a fortificaton tower. But we’ll see it’s gonna be a marker for the city landscape. Nothing remains from the palaces in damascus but there are fragments of palaces that survive, they are outside of the city, desert palaces, they are responsible because this family preferred to be outside the mercantile area of the city center, like qasr mashhata>> in the aerial view you see the walled outline and you could see from the planyou see the regular spaced tower,they look like military arc, but they were not protecting anything, they are highly decorated, they were like country palaces out in the landscape, as if it were a kind of castle, but more about reacalling the fortified imagery. Series to the rooms and access down to the center, and a lobe form , an entrances, and that space is call iwan. And the bottom part: two functions: 1 . hammam 2. Mosques Eastern mediterranean: islam both as relig and political entity went to southern medi to spain.through umayah dynasty. Math of spain: you see the jagged line, everything below that line was below it was under ummayyeds. Cardoba was the capital, they moved the capital from eastern to here, and the pop was equal to constantinople, cordaba was the islam capital in western europe.it was a multilingual city, it was resided by jews and north african nomadic ppl converted to islam, three diff religiouns but all under ummayeds, there was a political policythat allowed them to co exist: dhimma>> the ppl of the book: jew and christians, allo ppl of the book to live in the onclaves to live in. designation of the particular areas through different religious groups. City of very narrow and dense street: it is filled with mosques and suks and hammams, fonduqs ( hostels for traders) >> multilingual and bussling city and in the center the mai mosque was built> this building was adto throughout history by successors. The organisation of the blding with the aisles: we call a hipostyle mosques or hall, ythat plancomes from the great mosque of damascus. You see excredible sense of non-directionnesss, it is very dark, you don’t see the edges like being in the body of sth, each of the supporting double arches, in this case using local decorations to emphasize the arches, Next pic: you seee the repetition of the same arch. Secondary arcade is the horse shoe arcade>> all of those forms are seen on the exterior as if they have been pressed out to the exterior. As if space has been transferred to pattern as of space has been folded on intself. Like the domes withtiin the space which is pressed in and indented as if to impress a new form and a new shape: see that kind of fluidity and in the projection to the exterior of the space. One of the changes here: it was added on too. It also needed new rituals in the liturgy of islam and one of those happened in the site. He created a procession that passed through the mosque caryying a quran to the mihraband place it an arch underneath at the mihrab( new practice) and as the point of this new kinds of forms were created. Two of the domes in the either sides of the mihrab.and what you see in these domes ( roal area) restricted to the closest areaL nost ornate area. And what you see is both of them are different but relate, they are (domes) scalloped. You need a drum if there is a dome standinf=g on a swuare. Whatt the designers did was to create a transition zones thru the series of arches that spanned to more than one side. Systemo f ribs and in there interlinkinging: the created a mesh, it helps carryin g the load but they also create a visual effect that is a sirt od maematival space.creates a kind o f patterning which breaks up lightning and disrupts the structuaral serenity of the nilfing>> it makes you forget it it’s a building by creating ththrough space>> this effect is the creation of math pehonomenon. This bulding is all about centrifical orbitiing, maniopulation of the architects. It creates a kind of serenity. There are many in soain. In toledo: it is a synagogue.around 1100> santa maria la blance.muslims and jew were kicked out from spain in 15 century.has same kind of a plan as a mosque, preceding in all directtions and the horseshoe arches rising up>>this does not mean they vould not hchsngr the modques.not spoli They have an interlaver ornsmrtbuonhg invorporstr into capital .after they were exiled some did remained and those that were remained were mudahharis: they paid money and taxes whivh allowed them to livein the county, The city of grenada:far south : new dynasty oast umayyads, dynasty caem to power. Much of the spainwas christianzed by the king , grenade was the last cirty for the ppl to hang on to islam.alhamra is huge.sits upon a natural acropolis and the nasrids powered through ruled and pledging legions to the capital spain>> coexistance but they were isolated and alos the muslims weer dhtinked. One gate way called the gate of justice,looks like fortified space.assmeblage of five large
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