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FAH337H1 (20)

Competitive Spirit in Fifteenth-Century Rome:

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Betsy Bennett Purvis

- revival of different type of character motifs in sculpture - - Equestrian sculpture - - Donatello (his created in 1447-53) and Verrocchio (1481-95) - Donatello first to be called to the north (Venice) to create a sculpture for Gattamelata (Erasmo de Narni), a mercenary sculpture - - Venice had to rely on soldiers for hire like Florence. Gattamelata hired by the venicians bringing Padua into their republic. - other ways before the revival to celebrate mercenary was usually through painting - patron competing with others being celebrated, as well as artist in competition with other celebratory monuments. - Antiquity as large point of reference - in donatello basically only three Equestrian examples from antiquity, only two of which survive - - marcus aurelius - horses of St marks - the regisole of pavia (destroyed in 18th c.) - examples closer to home, in northern italy; status of person shown on horseback - - monument of bernabo visconti - monument to cangrande della scala - - Gattamelata made his own legacy and wealth through soldiery, fighting for money, whereas Visconti and Cangrande were victorious rulers of new territories. - form of these statues reflect mideival social structures - carved details, chivalric knight (Visconti) - Cangrande- shows himself not in battle armour but him and his hours in jousting garb. more light-hearted. benevolent ruler. - what he creates for Gattemaleta is a monument that takes many leaps and bounds forwards in how it makes the subject very grand. - - the material used is bronze; lots of money went into this monument. It was paid for through Narnis Will. - previous materials in the examples above was stone. - looking for a way to put himself on par with military figures of the medieval and antique history - costume is a hybrid of contemporary and antiquity - - upper body and chest plate show classical ancient roman armour - most likely ceremonial armour - holds baton in gesture that would mirror what you would see in battle; what they would do to show which direction to go. - persona - - looks back on the sombre image of the Marcus Aurelius - Verrocchios Monument to Bartolomeo Colleoni - - Bartolomeo was another mercenary soldier and had left money and instruction to build an equestrian monument in his Will - - both these patrons actually wanted to have these monuments inside of the cathedral; the people of the church werent really down because of the political and social implications of that (violence) - dominates the piazza around the monument that it eventually found its home in - in competition with Donatellos work - injects his own artistry in the genre of equestrian monuments by creating an expressive quality - - profile of his face shows the direct view of his fierce and expressive visage of Colleoni - shoulders are turned at different axis as face and legs - from the face, we see a strong man - through his body, we see him puffing up his chest, summoning up the courage to face the impending doom - creates a character behind who he was on the battlefield - Leonards Francesco Sforza - - never completed - Antonio Pallaiuolo submitted a proposal for the monument where sforza is trampling his adversary while charging onwards - - young leonardo scoops the contract from Pallaiuolo - writes to the duke saying he can make it better - borrows the ideas of Pallaiulo - farthest that Leonardos project progressed was a large Plaster model, but it was destroyed - it would have been four or five times life size Sistine chapel - commissioned by pope sixtus IV and built by Baccio Pontelli - started building in 1477-81 and used as a ceremonial space for the pope where special masses would be held, as well as the election for new popes - still a functional place - decoration of the space and its evolution - decoration is dynastic, conned by pope Julius II who brought in Michelangelo - - putting stamp on their generations through decorations - commission history - - four florentines sent to rome under employ of the pope, were the most cutting edge artists of florence at the time sent under Lorenzo the Magnificent - friction between the papacy and Medici in the 1470s - - assassination attempt in which the pope himself had given an okay to people in florence who were against Medici rule; giuliano and lorenzo mainly - Pazzi family lead the assassination and were envious of the Medici family success within Florence. - two brothers were ambushed in the cathedral; they were at the crossing of the cathedral; Giuliano didn;t escape escape and was killed in the cathedral. - lorenzo ran and locked himself in the sacristy and survived. - Pazzi were rounded up, some where hanged - Botticelli was responsible for painting portraits of those who were hung for treason of this assassination on the external wall of the cathedral
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