February 24, 2014
FAH377 WEEK 8
Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael in Florence: imitation and rivalry
Leonardo, Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the
Baptist (Burlington House Cartoon), c.1500 (possibly a later
copy or reworking), London, National Gallery
148183 goes t Milan spends 20yrs as court artist. 1499 French
over runs city of Milan becomes French territory, Leonardo
leaves goes back home to Florence. This drawing is one of the
first works he does when he returns. Virgin holding baby Jesus to
her left is St Anne her bother, baby interacting with St. John the
Baptist. Burlington House Cartoon, got name from place it was
exhibited. The drawing was one of the first works of art we know
of to be placed on public exhibition. Housed in church of
Annunziata. Personal and physiologically complex, unique
invention injects new life into devotional art. Composition
awkward grouping before used to be St. Anne largest then
descended size to virgin and baby here he is breaking the tradition of that composition. Sitting
half on lap of St. Anne, baby Jesus reaching out to touch Johns chin blessing him. Drawing in
white and black chalk true study of chiaroscuro, blending the two together to create forms that
are highly 3D. Interacting and exchanging gestures. Changing what it means to paint sets him
apart. Developed this style from Last Supper. Florence at the time hadn’t seen works like this,
drawing was placed on display in church courtyard. Artistry of the drawing outshines devotion.
Never turns into altarpiece. Anne was an important patron saint of the Florentine Republic, one
associated with the defeat of tyrants ever since the regime of the Duke of Athens collapsed on
her feast day. Anne’s pointing gesture signals her understanding of the union of the human with
the divine. Virgins head too small for body. The battle of Anghiaris is a bellicose version of this
contemporary cartoon or the cartoon is a pacific version of the battle.
SS. Annunziata, designed by Leon Battista Alberti,
14691481 (redecorated in the 17 C)
Structure is renaissance not more baroque.
Reminiscent to Brunelleschi’s work. Back piece of
altarpiece was supposed to have a crucifixion scene.
Front was suppose to have a subject related to virgin
Mary originally Filipino Lippi had commission but
when Leonardo came back Vasari says that Lippi
conceded the commission to Leonardo and supposedly
the previous drawing mentioned was suppose to be the
design for the front of the altarpiece.
Filippino Lippi and Pietro Perugino, Descent from the Cross, back side of
Annunziata altarpiece 150002 and 15041507 February 24, 2014
Started the backside of the altarpiece from around 150002. Leaves project dies, commission
handed over to Pietro Perugino who finishes backside and also paints the front side
Pietro Perugino, Assumption of the Virgin, front side of the
Annunziata Altarpiece, c.15061507
Hasn’t really evolved his style, been painting almost 25 years
now. Ppl were disappointed because it didn’t surprise them
wasn’t new it was the same as any other work Perugino did.
This was one of his last commissions, lived another 20 years.
Leonardo, Madonna and Child with St. Anne, c.150608,
John the Baptist has been replaced with a lamb., this enabled him to unify the
figures more compactly into the pyramid that he had favoured. Compositional
formula is still there breaks up static. For 8 years stayed in Florence.
Returned to Florence by 1498, in 1506 called back to work for the Pope and
his tomb. Rivalry btw Michelangelo and Leonardo. February 24, 2014
The Salone del Cinquecento (The Room of
the 500) in Palazzo Vecchio
Added to town hall of Florence. Paintings
from 2 half of 16thc of Vasari. Space is
awkward built during reign of savorolla.
Went up so fast said “angels” must be
keeping it standing. Want a colossal battle
scenf rom 1440’s defining moment of
Florence would have been on the right
Leonardo first one to land painting in there,
only a year later Michelangelo was commissioned to make painting.
Artist unknown, the “Tavola Doria (16th C
copy of Leonardo’s “Capture of the Flag”
from the Battle of Anghiari scene in the
Commissioned for the Sala del Gran
Consiglio, the signoria meant to
commemorate the Florentine victory over the
Milanese. Foot soldiers and cavalry were
meant to be represented. Worked on this for
several years after a year of completing what
he did it began to fall apart and was covered
over. Although the figures were intertwined,
each reveals individuality in facial expression.
Ornamental details of the armour and weapons as well as anecdotal details of combat embellish
the narrative. Leonardo’s battle would have been far more decorative than Michelangelo’s and
more painterly. Represents the capture of the Mianese flag. We know from copies what they
planed. This is a small scale copy of a dramatic moment in great battle of Anghiari. Highly
emotional and dramatic. Two groups of soldiers, screaming turning and twisting in battle.
Bottom soldier about to plunge dagger into neck of opponent. More likely looked like this than
Peter Paul Rubens, copy after Leonardo da
Vinci’s Battle of Anghiari, early 17th c copy
Florentine cavalry troops battle furiously.
Recognized artistic merit. Very likely Reuben is
embellishing parts. This drawing is considered the
best surviving record of Leonardo’s original
painting, although it must be a copy of a copy
since Leonardo’s work was no longer visible at the
time Rubens arrived in Florence. Drawings hint
that setting would have included an elaborate river
landscape: the most extraordinary aspect of the February 24, 2014
fresco might have been the range of coloristic and atmospheric effects that Leonardo planned. N
his notebook he wrote of a battlefield where the air was thick with smoke and dust, and where
the predominant colors in the dusky light were the fiery red of the torches and of human blood
pounded into mud. All of this would have been rendered through films of transparent paint that
would have unified the figures and integrated them with their landscape. The effect of this
emphasis on setting and atmosphere could not be more different from that planned by
Michelangelo, whose sculptural figures were to be clearly visible, painted in the bright colors of
Leonardo adorned both his Florentines and his mercenaries with fantastical armor that imitates
the body parts of animals.
Leonardo, drawings for the Battle of
Anghiari, 15034, Venice, Accademia
Begins with end of the story. Foot soldiers top
left, dynamism and power. Right side figure runs
into scene. Study of natural world comes into
play. Old many probably study for enemy
whereas the youthful man would be a Florentine
Perugino, the battle of love and chastity,
Produced for a female patron Isabella, much
smaller scale, meant to go in her personal
study, she wasn’t impressed wasn’t dynamic
enough didn’t have enough figures. Not able to
or not willing to keep up with art at the time.
Aristotle da Sangallo, copy of
Michelangelo’s Battle of Cascina, c.1542
Was commissioned for the same room in which
Leonardo’s battle of Anghiari was to be displayed February 24, 2014
thus in competition, whoever was better could get another commission. Got his commission a
year after Leonardo’s. Michelangelo was very secretive didn’t like ppl looking at his work before
it was done. Successful sculptor inexperienced painter. Composition of individual bodies, most
nude and struggling with themselves. Created a sculpture garden. Records an event that occurred
the day before the battle.
Chose to focus on moment before battle began. The troops decide to take off their clothes and go
into the water for a swim, general teaches them a lesson by sounding the alarm as they rush to
clothe and arm themselves. Episode appealed to Michelangelo for the opportunity it presented to
strip figures in a variety of poses Copy 3 times removed, this is a testament to a way of how
these images changed painting. Michelangelo didn’t need live studio models; he worked on his
cartoon in a hospital on cadavers for dissection. Michelangelo designed a relief like composition
of muscular naked figures, which he spread across and above the surface rather than setting
within pictorial depth. Background does not distract from figures, each studied independently,
and a body of drawings in a variety of graphic media provides a better indication of how the
original might have looked rather than this copy.
Michelangelo, study of Battle of Cascina, ca. 1503, and