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Astronomy & Astrophysics
Michael Reid

Assignment 10  Jupiter and Saturn are made mostly of hydrogen and helium, while Uranus and Neptune are primarily made of hydrogen compounds such as water (H O),2methane (CH ), a4d ammonia (NH ). 3  There is no obvious trend in the densities of the jovian planets. For example, Jupiter is the nearest and most massive of the four planets, but it is the second-lowest in density. The lack of a clear trend tells us that we need to look deeper at the nature of these planets in order to understand their densities.  Recall that planets are made from four major categories of ingredients, shown in the table below. In general, the densities of the ingredients in the table increase from top to bottom; metals are the most dense, and hydrogen and helium gas are the least dense. Consider how this trend in the densities of the different materials would be expected to affect the densities of the jovian planets.  Which of the following statements best explains why the densities of Uranus and Neptune are higher than those of Jupiter and Saturn? o They have a higher proportion of hydrogen compounds and rock. o At similar temperature and pressure, hydrogen compounds and rock are much higher in density than hydrogen and helium. The internal conditions in the jovian planets are similar enough so that composition has a major effect on average density. Uranus and Neptune are higher in density than Jupiter and Saturn because they are made primarily of higher-density hydrogen compounds and rock.  Which of the following best explains why Jupiter’s density is higher than Saturn's? o Jupiter is more massive than Saturn. o Because Jupiter and Saturn have nearly identical composition, Jupiter’s higher density indicates that its interior is more compressed than Saturn’s. This greater compression is due to gravity, which is stronger for Jupiter because of its greater mass.  Based on the leading scientific theory of solar system formation, which of the following statements best explains why Uranus and Neptune have a significantly different composition and higher density than Jupiter and Saturn? o Jupiter and Saturn captured more gas from the solar nebula than Uranus and Neptune. o Accretion is thought to have occurred more rapidly in the denser regions of the solar nebula that were closer to the Sun. Therefore, although all four jovian planets captured hydrogen and helium gas from the solar nebula around similar-mass planetesimals (made of hydrogen compounds and rock), Jupiter and Saturn had more time to capture this gas. As a result, Jupiter and Saturn accreted so much hydrogen and helium gas that these ingredients ended up dominating their composition. In contrast, Uranus and Neptune were left with compositions dominated by hydrogen compounds and rock, which also led to their higher densities   All four jovian planets are thought to have formed around planetesimals of about 10 Earth masses, composed of a mixture of hydrogen compounds (ices) and rock. These planetesimals became the cores of the jovian planets. The planets have different atmospheric compositions today because each one captured different amounts of hydrogen and helium gas from the solar nebula. Process of Science: Tidal Heating  Tidal heating is a source of internal heat created by tidal friction, which is friction generated as a result of a varying tidal force.  A tidal force is a force arising from a difference in the strength of a gravitational attraction across an object, causing the object to stretch. For example, the Moon exerts a gravitational attraction on Earth, but this attraction is stronger on the side of Earth facing the Moon than on the opposite side  Io experiences tidal heating primarily because __________. o Io's elliptical orbit causes the tidal force on Io to vary as it orbits Jupiter o The strength of the tidal force depends on Io's distance from Jupiter, so the tidal force varies as Io moves around its elliptical orbit. The tidal bulge even changes direction slightly, because the orbital speed varies. These tidal effects essentially stretch and compress Io's interior, and this tidal friction is the source of the tidal heating.  From Part A, Io's elliptical orbit is necessary to its tidal heating. This elliptical orbit, in turn, is a result of the orbital resonance among Io, Europa, and Ganymede. This orbital resonance causes Io to have a more elliptical orbit than it would otherwise, because __________. o Io periodically passes Europa and Ganymede in the same orbital position o The repeated passes at the same orbital position mean that Io experiences repeated gravitational tugs at the same place in each orbit, and these tugs make its orbit more elliptical tha
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