AST101 Lecture - October 23.pdf

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Astronomy & Astrophysics
Michael Reid

Ast101 Lecture - October 23 - only heavy materials (metals and rocks) can condense within the frost line - also light materials (H, He, ices) outside the frost line - theory of solar nebula states that our solar system was created by the collapse of a dense cloud of gas - there is also a rock line, past which even rocks will vaporize (this is very close to the sun) -TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION (INSIDE THE FORST LINE) - dust grains settle in the disk - dust grains stick to form pebbles and rocks - rocks crash together to form boulders - when boulders form mountains (1km) gravity accelerates their growth JOVIAN PLANET FORMATION (OUTSIDE THE FORST LINE) - there is more stuff around: ice as well as rock. So, planets can grow larger - once planets reach about 10 earth masses, their gravity is strong enough to pull gas out of the nebula - this leads to gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn) or ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) if there's note enough gas - leftover icy planetesimals can become comets - we think that the comets are the reason that earth and mars and venus got water - if the sun was cooler and dimmer, the frost line would be closer in OBSERVATIONS - rocky planets inside - explained by nebular hypothesis - gas planets outside - explained
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