AST101H1 Lecture : 9.1-Connecting Planetary Interiors and Surfaces

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CHAPTER NINE: PLANETARY GEOLOGY
9.1 Connecting Planetary Interiors and Surfaces
-the great differences in the present day appearance of the 5 terrestrial planets must be the result of
changes that have occurred through time
-volcanoes, earthquakes, asteroid or comets slamming into Earth, erosion by wind rain or ice, etc.
-Mercury and Moon Æ scars of their battering during the heavy bombardment
Ædensely covered by craters
-Venus Æ bizarre bulges and odd volcanoes dot the surface of Venus
-Mars Æ has the solar system·s largest volcanoes and a huge canyon
Æ numerous features that appear to have been shaped by running water
-Earth Æ similar to all those on the other terrestrial worlds including a unique layer of living organisms
that covers almost the entire surface
Inside of Terrestrial Planets
-our most detailed information comes from seismic waves, vibrations that travel both through Earth·s
interior and along its surface after an earthquake
Layering by Density
-Core Æ the highest-density material
Æ consists primarily of metals such as nickel and iron
Æ resides in the centre of the core
Æ consists of two distinct regions; a solid inner core and a molten outer core
-Mantle Æ rocky material of moderate density
Æ mostly minerals that contain silicon, oxygen and other elements
Æ forms thick mantle that surrounds the core
-Crust Æ the lowest-density rock, granite and basalt
Æ forms the thin crust, essentially representing the world·s outer skin
-Mercury has a large core
Æformed in the region of the solar nebula where the planetesimals should have been most metal-
rich
Æ may have also suffered a giant impact that blasted away much of its original mantle and crust
-Moon has a small core
Æa small core is expected if the Moon really did form from debris blasted out of Earth·s outer
layers since that debris would have contained very little high-density metal
-all worlds underwent differentiation at some time in the past, which means all these worlds must once
have been hot enough inside for the interior rock and meta to melt and separate by density
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AST101H1 Full Course Notes
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The great differences in the present day appearance of the 5 terrestrial planets must be the result of changes that have occurred through time. Volcanoes, earthquakes, asteroid or comets slamming into earth, erosion by wind rain or ice, etc. Mercury and moon scars of their battering during the heavy bombardment. Venus bizarre bulges and odd volcanoes dot the surface of venus. Mars has the solar systems largest volcanoes and a huge canyon. numerous features that appear to have been shaped by running water. Earth similar to all those on the other terrestrial worlds including a unique layer of living organisms that covers almost the entire surface. Our most detailed information comes from seismic waves, vibrations that travel both through earths interior and along its surface after an earthquake. consists primarily of metals such as nickel and iron. resides in the centre of the core.

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